200 things that determine the health of the high street. Note number 6 in the list #WDYT

The following is an extract from MMU – all rigts acknowledged – https://e-space.mmu.ac.uk/611686/1/HSUK2020%20Project%20Report.pdf .

Note this report is from 2014, it would be interesting to see where e-commerce would be if this exercise was completed today, and also if Supermarket impact would be so highly ranked.  The first number following each listing is Influence ranking e.g. 4.67 for Footfall

SoMAC-Art-in-the-City-banners.jpg

 

Influence Factor Definition/interpretation used in study
Example study/studies Influence Hierarchy
1.Footfall
Number of pedestrians counted over a specific time period, in a specific location
Warnaby and Yip, 2005 4.67 3.33
2.Accessibility
Centre accessible by a variety of transport modes (walking, bike, car, bus etc.)
Brockman, 2008; Clark, 2006 4.57 2.67
3.Retailer representation
Types of retailers in centre (goods/services, independents/multiples etc.)
Wrigley and Dolega, 2011 4.57 3.29
4.Construction of OOT centre
The construction of out-of-town retail parks or malls Guy, 1998a 4.52 2.62
5.Convenience
The ability to reach, browse, and shop in a centre easily and without much effort
Leo and Philippe, 2010 4.48 3.02
6.Leadership
Refers to the provision of vision and strategy for the High Street/centre
Tomalin and Pal, 1994 4.43 3.62
7.Opening hours
What hours does the town centre, high street, shopping centre, retail park, etc. open? Hart et al., 2013 4.43 3.76
8.Shopping hours What hours do the shops in the centre open? Hart et al., 2013 4.40 3.43 9.Place attractiveness Links to the overall attractiveness of an urban place and its incentives for visiting it e.g. shopping Teller and Elms, 2012 4.38 3.05
10.Retailer offer
Retailer representation, large/small, specialist/generalist, high service/no-frills Brown, 1987 4.38 3.50
11. Supermarket impact
The impact of supermarket development on small retailers and the High Street
Clulow and Reimers, 2009 4.38 2.62
12.Economy
Refers to the general state of production and supply and supply of money in the country
De Magalhaes, 2012 4.36 2.05
13.Centre size
Size of centre as a measure of overall drawing power Yuo et al., 2003 4.35 1.81
14.Area development strategies
Ways of redeveloping existing retail centres – e.g. pedestrianisation, new shopping centre etc.
Karrholm et al., 2014 4.33 3.24
15.E-Retail The sale of goods and services through the Internet
Weltevreden, 2007 4.33 2.29
16.Range/quality of goods
Range (wide vs. narrow) of retail goods on the High Street and the overall or perceived quality of them Hart et al., 2013 4.33 3.29
17.Collaboration
Various stakeholders from different sectors working together for physical, commercial and general improvement of the High Street/Centre
Hardill et al., 2012 4.30 3.48
18.Public transport
Range of fixed route modes of public transportation to and from the High Street
May et al, 2012; De Nisco, 2013 4.30 2.90
19.Attractiveness
The ability of a centre to attract customers from a catchment area. Dennis et al, 2003 4.29 3.05
20.Centre management
Control, coordination, guidance of a centre’s activities and of its tenants/retailers Teller, 2008 4.29 3.57
21.Sales/turnover
Total amount of retail sales made in a certain period (specific store or all High Street stores, shopping centre revenue, etc.)
Tomalin and Pal, 1994 4.29 3.14
23

22.Connectivity
Refers to the number and quality of connection points between the built-up fabric in the High Street/Centre Nase et al., 2013 4.28 3.10
23.Location Spatial positioning of the centre
Coelho and Wilson, 1976 4.26 1.14 24.Walkability Friendliness of an area to walking Frank et al, 2006 4.25 3.43
25.Service quality
Overall impression of the level of service from centre.
DeNisco and Warnaby, 2013 4.24 3.67 26.Retail rents The cost of renting retail space (usually by m2) Yuo et al, 2003 4.24 2.62
27.Tenant variety Range of goods/services and range of fascias
Teller and Elms, 2012 4.24 3.19
28.Vacancy rates
Unoccupied/non-rented rental units, expressed as a percentage of the number of shops in the town
Wrigley & Dolega, 2011 4.24 3.05
29.Transport route
All public transport routes (railway tracks, bus lanes, tram lanes, cycle routes, etc.) to the centre
Pantano et al., 2010 4.23 2.48
30.Barriers to Entry
Refers to obstacles that make it difficult for interested retailers to enter the centre
Clarke, Bennison, Guy, 1994 4.22 2.95
31.Landlords
Owners of retail, commercial, and other types of property
Roberts et al., 2010 4.22 2.95
32.Retail Planning Policy
National policy, principles and guidelines for town centres that local councils are encouraged to comply with
Cheshire, Hilber, Kaplanis, 2011 4.21 2.10
33.Business Rates
Local tax based on commercial premise’s rateable value Singleton, 2014 4.19 2.14
34.Customer/ catchment views and behaviour (inc. patronage)
The perceptions of the centre held by customers/catchment and use of the centre by customers/catchment
Powe and Hart, 2008; Oppewal et al, 2007 4.19 2.95
35.Internet/ Online Shopping
The ability to browse, compare and shop goods and services via the Internet rather than going to the actual store
Weltevreden, 2007 4.19 2.24
36.Non-retail offer
Total amount of units that are not considered as part of a shopping trip and usually augment it (hair salon, banking, amusements, recreational spaces, etc.)
Teller and Schnedlitz, 2012 4.19 3.29
37.Prosperity of town
Links to the financial flourishing of a town’s citizens or the town overall.
Wrigley et al., 2009 4.19 2.14
38.Range/quality of shops
Range (wide vs. narrow) of retail shops on the High Street and the overall or perceived quality of them Hart et al., 2013 4.19 3.29
39.Shopping centre management
How the physical space is managed in order to attract retail traffic to shopping centre tenants
Roberts et al., 2010 4.18 3.57
40.Retail flexibility
Degree of adaptation to change type or style of retailing activities
Findlay and Sparks., 2010 4.18 3.19
41.Distance to centre
Amount of linear space between the consumer and the city centre Nase et al., 2013 4.17 1.50
42.Finance
A centre’s/ High Street’s funding from inward/outward investment, public or private Peel, 2003 4.16 2.62
24

43.Car-parking The number or availability of parking spaces
Borgers and Timmermans, 1998 4.14 3.71
44.Catchment size
Whether a catchment area of a centre is large or small
Hardill et al., 2012 4.14 1.76
45.Comparison/ convenience
The amount of comparison shopping opportunities compared to convenience (usually in percentage terms)
Reimers and Clulow, 2004 4.14 3.00
46.Consumer trends
Habits or behaviours currently prevalent among consumers of goods or services. Auport, 2005 4.14 2.00
47.Retail choice
Links to everyday consumer patterns and how they alternate and influence retail offer Clarke et al., 2004 4.14 2.81
48.Retail diversity
A mix of multiples and independents, range of goods, a strong anchor.
Findlay and Sparks, 2009 4.14 3.24
49.Linked trips
Consumers’ propensity to visit other stores after fulfilling their main shopping need (e.g. grocery shopping)
Thomas and Bromley, 2003 4.13 3.29
50.Anchor stores
Presence of anchor stores – which give locations their basic character and signify importance Thorpe, 1968 4.10 3.48
51.Attractions
Anything that brings people into the centre and is not a part of its fixed retail offer (e.g. Christmas markets, events, museums, etc.) Peel, 2003 4.10 3.76
52. Availability of alternative formats
Department stores, speciality stores, discount stores. Linked to cross-shopping and retail offer.
Morganosky, 1997 4.10 3.19
53.Catchment income Income profile of catchment
Shields and Deller, 1998 4.10 2.29
54.Catchment view/behaviour
Shopping behaviour, preferences and intentions of catchment
Clulow and Reimers, 2009 4.10 2.24
55.Centre image
Merchandising, accessibility, service and atmospherics. Adapted from shopping centre image.
Sit, Merrilees and Birch, 2003 4.10 3.71
56.Employment
The amount of people in the catchment area that have got jobs Biddulph, 2011 4.10 2.10
57.Evening economy
All economic activity taking place in the evening after many people finish daytime employment, such as eating and drinking, entertainment, and nightlife Biddulph, 2011 4.10 3.57
58. Monofunctional vs multifunctional
Centres used only for retail use (monofunctional) or for other uses as well, e.g. office use (multifunctional)
Irazabal and Chakravarty, 2007 4.10 3.19
59. Pedestrianisation (flow, routes, access)
The provision and type of pedestrian space (streets, open malls, ‘skywalks’ etc.)
Cui, Allan and Lin, 2013 4.10 3.38
60.Place management
A philosophy of how to improve towns and cities through more flexible and inclusive management
Coca-Stefaniak et el., 2009 4.10 3.43
61.Planning
The strategic management of land and buildings for economic and social benefits Guy, 1998 4.10 2.43
25

62.Planning Blight
Reduction of economic activity or property values in a particular area resulting from expected development or restriction of development
Imrie and Thomas, 1997 4.10 2.81
63.Retail innovation
Representation of new forms of retailing (e.g. click and collect) Gibbs, 1987 4.10 2.71
64.Retail spend The amount of money spent during a shopping trip
Dennis et al., 2002 4.10 3.10
65.Tenant mix Range of goods/services and range of fascias
Teller and Elms, 2012 4.10 3.33
66.Town Centre Management
Decision of town to use town centre management to coordinate resources and activity
Pal and Sanders, 1997 4.10 3.62
67.Visitor satisfaction
Global attitude gained by visiting the high street, a mental process
Leo and Philippe, 2010 4.10 3.62
68.Visual appearance
Includes building appearance, lightning, cleanliness, is the centre appealing to people? Hart et al, 2013 4.10 3.81
69.Location of employment
Refers to whether employers operate in, nearby, or out of the High Street/City Centre
Powe and Hart, 2008 4.09 2.62
70. Crossshopping
Visiting more than one store when visiting a retail centre
Bodkin and Lord, 1997 4.05 3.38 71.Population All the inhabitants at a particular place Hall, 2011 4.05 1.69
72.Partnerships
Integration between public and private high street stakeholders amongst a variety of public, private and community interests
Williams, 1999; Peel, 2003 4.02 3.48
73.Property ownership
Type of ownership of retail properties in the high street (sole owner, tenant, landlord, etc.)
De Magalhaes, 2012 4.00 2.86
74.Recession
The overall impact of the economic downturn on the high street
De Magalhaes, 2012 4.00 2.19
75.Safety/crime
A centre KPI measuring perceptions or actual crime including shoplifting
Jones, 1990; Hogg et al, 2004 4.00 3.14
76.Size/Type of town
Small Town, Market Town, Rural Town, Metropolitan, etc. Carruthers, 1967 4.00 1.43
77.Household expenditures
The sum of household consumption expenditure and non-consumption expenditures Thorpe, 1968 3.95 2.19
78.Regeneration
Strengthening economic linkages, development attracting commercial investment and consumers Smith, 2004 3.95 2.90
79.Cleanliness Look of centre, tidiness
Bennison and Davies, 1980 3.90 3.86
80.Consumer Choice Consumer consumption expenditure preferences Clarke et al., 2004 3.90 2.48
81. Familiarity
How comfortable people feel in the city centre/High Street
Leo and Philippe, 2010 3.90 3.48
82. Leisure offer
Facilities that offer activities which are associated with pleasure, enjoyment, and free time in a centre Howard, 2007 3.90 3.40
83.Stakeholder power
Links to the degree of influence on decision-making by various High Street stakeholder groups
Pal and Sanders, 1997 3.90 3.05
84.Top 25 retailers
Links to the volatility of the covenant strength risk ratings of the top 25 retailers
Hutchison et al., 2008 3.90 2.48
85.Assortments The breadth and depth of merchandise Teller, 2008 3.88 3.71
26

86.Flexibility
The degree of change and adaptability of a centre’s built environment and services in order to meet local conditions, trends, and consumer needs
Roberts et al., 2010 3.86 3.14
87.Population density Measurement of population in a catchment area Hall, 2011 3.85 1.74 88.Catchment age Age profile of catchment Shields and Deller, 1998 3.81 2.19
89.Amenities Facilities such as toilets, places to sit and rest etc. Sit et al, 2003 3.81 3.76
90.Liveability
Centres are accessible without a car and consumers can fulfil needs without travelling to another centre
Rotem-Mindali, 2012 3.81 2.86
91. Mobility
How freely and easily can people move to, from and in the high street/shopping centre
Rotem-Mindali, 2012 3.81 2.71
92.Mode of transport
How do customers come to the High Street (bus, car, foot, tram, metro, bicycle, etc.)
Timmermans et al., 1992 3.81 2.57
93.Structure
Physical layout of centre, store location, external appearance (fascias, etc.) Dawson, 1988 3.81 2.86
94.Community leadership
Used here to describe Local Authorities leadership role with communities
Kures and Ryan, 2012 3.80 3.62
95. Chain vs independent
Number of multiples stores and independent stores in the retail mix of a centre/High Street
Borgers and Vosters, 2011 3.76 3.29
96. Construction of new shopping centre (in town )
Refers to the construction of new shopping centres and their effects in inner city areas
Timmermans et al., 1992 3.76 2.90
97. Economic base
Total number of businesses that generate employment in a community or a geographical area.
Shields and Deller, 1998 3.76 1.86
98.General facilities
Facilities that contribute to a retail centre’s/High Street’s convenience Teller, 2008 3.76 3.57
99.Lease lengths
Average time of lease agreements between retailers and landlords for use of retail property Nase et al., 2013 3.76 2.71
100.Mixed-Use
Developments that include not only retail activities, but also offices and even housing ones Balsas, 2008 3.76 3.24
101.Recreational areas/facilities/ activities
Areas to relax or simply spend time in and, therefore, satisfy social needs
Teller and Reutterer, 2008 3.76 3.52
102.Retail centre preference
Type of centre that consumers are choosing based on attitudinal criteria
Clulow and Reimers, 2009 3.76 2.43
103.Tourist/ visitor attractions
All place attractions that are associated with spending free time, sightseeing, relaxation, leisure, etc.
De Nisco and Napolitano, 2006 3.76 3.00
104. Entertainment
All activities that can provide enjoyment and amusement to consumers Teller et al., 2008 3.75 3.71
105.Networking
Interaction between High Street stakeholders for assistance and support
De Magalhaes, 2012 3.75 3.81
106. Retail change
Any change in regulations, infrastructure, technology, consumer behaviour, etc. that influences and alternates the retail offer on the High Street and beyond
Clarke, Bennison and Guy, 1994; Pioch and Byrom , 2004 3.75 2.52
27

107.Competition
Refers to the activities of retailers to gain more profit/sales than others in a particular area
Clarke, Bennison, Guy, 1994 3.72 3.05
108. Rents Turnover
Financial incentive given to tenants in which the rent is calculated by reference to the turnover generated by the tenant
Kirkup and Rafiq, 1994 3.72 3.10
109.Atmosphere
A global assessment of a retail centre, made up of a number of factors such as manoeuvrability, orientation and sales personnel
Teller and Elms, 2012 3.71 3.76
110.Secondary shopping/edgeof-centre shopping
Any type of shopping/retail activity in secondary locations out of High Street, e.g. Edge of City Centre locations
NRPF, 2004, Bennison et al, 2010 3.71 2.67
111. Spatial structure
Links to city centre/high street structures, nodal, bi-nodal, multi-nodal and polycentric regions and how they influence hierarchy of centres within metropolitan areas.
Bennison and Davies, 1980; Williams, 1999 3.71 1.24
112. Fragmentation
The degree of detachment in the High Street (political, retail, ownership, etc.) Williams, 1999 3.67 2.81
113.Commercial yields Level of return on commercial property investment
Hutchinson et al, 2008 3.67 2.88
114.Consumer culture
The current state that encourages consumption of goods/services Clarke et al., 2004 3.67 2.10
115.Floorspace
Total amount of floor area that is used for retail, leisure and other town centre uses Gibbs, 1987 3.67 3.05
116.Marketing Town centre effort in marketing
Kavaratzis and Ashworth, 2008 3.67 3.57
117.Store characteristics
Perceptions on characteristics like store location, environment, staff, etc.
Pantano et al., 2010 3.67 3.52
118.Street characteristics
Physical characteristics of the street/route that leads to or contains shopping/retail areas
Borgers and Timmermans, 1986 3.67 3.05
119. Technology
As an environmental factor that affects retailers, e.g. RFID
Coca-Stefaniak et al, 2005 3.67 2.19
120.Travel time
Links to length of trip to the shopping centre, high street, etc.
Rotem-Mindali, 2012 3.67 1.67
121. Type of centre (mall vs street)
Retail Parks, Shopping Centres, Malls, Out-of-town, etc. Hart et al, 2013 3.67 2.95
122. BID’s
Establishment of a Business Improvement District enabling local businesses, services and council to collaborate
De Magalhaes, 2012 3.62 3.71
123. Drive time
Total number of minutes travelling by car to a desired location Lowe, 2000 3.62 1.43
124. Number of landlords
Refers to the number of property owners that are renting out High Street premises Whysall, 2011 3.62 2.90
125. Place hierarchy
Hierarchy of places based on their centrality and size (national, metropolitan, major regional, minor regional, major district, minor district, etc.
Reynolds and Schiller, 1992; Guy, 1998 3.62 1.38
126. Real estate ownership
Links to type real estate ownership (single or multiple ownership, commercial company) Teller, 2008 3.62 2.90
28

127. Store development
The process of building, upgrading, remodelling or renovating retail stores Clarke, 2000 3.62 3.33
128. Engagement
Formal arrangement between High Street stakeholders (e.g. BIDs and council, community)
De Magalhaes, 2012 3.60 3.24
129. Retail fragmentation
Dividing up areas of high retail activity with areas of low activity Hart et al, 2013 3.60 3.43
130. Catchment commuting Amount of catchment that works in another centre
Shields and Deller, 1998 3.57 2.95
131. Environmental quality
Varied characteristics that refer to the natural fabric and built environment of the High Street/centre
Thomas and Bromley, 2003 3.57 2.69
132. Inertia (behavioural)
Tendency of consumers to repeat the same shopping trip in a centre as part of daily routines Clarke et al., 2004 3.57 3.00
133. Local economic integration
Coordination of economic activities and reduction of barriers with an aim to reduce costs to both local consumers and retailers
Findlay and Sparks, 2010 3.57 3.00
134. Supply of retail units
Number of units/properties that are available for retail use only
Jones and Orr, 1999 3.57 3.00
135. Functionality
The degree to which a centre fulfils a role – e.g. service centre, employment centre, residential centre, tourist centre.
Powe and Hart, 2008 3.52 3.33
136. Heritage
All parts of city centre/High Street ‘offer’ that are part of a place’s history (landmarks, old buildings, etc.)
Whitehead et al., 2006 3.52 3.12
137. Merchandise value
Links to the overall value of retail goods and the amount of pricing, discounts, samples, and other retail-related factors that customers can benefit from Teller, 2008 3.52 2.86
138. Multiple land ownership
Pieces of land/buildings/stores on the High Street/Town Centre that are owned by more than one owner
Robertson, 1997; Henderson, 2011 3.52 2.81
139. Open space
Amount of space that is not in private ownership, that citizens can freely use Cohen, 1996 3.52 3.38
140. Planning application
Permission in order to be allowed to build on land, or change the use of existing land or buildings
Dabinett et al., 1999 3.52 2.43
141. Public space
Amount of space that is not in private ownership, that citizens can freely use Cohen, 1996 3.52 3.55
142. Retail-led Regeneration
The impact that retail has had on the regeneration (in its widest sense – social, economic and physical) of town centres and local high streets
Findlay and Sparks, 2009 3.52 2.81
143. Urban Design
Process of designing and shaping cities, towns and villages.
De Nisco and Warnaby, 2014 3.52 3.05
144. Use of technology
Use of technology by retailers, to control costs, develop new markets, and new strategies
Kures and Ryan, 2012 3.52 2.43
145. Governance
Refers to the manner of governing the area affiliated with a centre (local, regional, metropolitan, community) Henderson, 2011 3.48 2.95
146. Retail/tenant Trust
Links to the relationships between retail tenants and shopping centre managers or town centre managers, see tenant/managers relationship
Roberts et al., 2010 3.45 3.52
29

147. Reputation
Links to the town’s/city’s ‘presence’ as a heuristic for visiting a retail centre/High Street Hart et al, 2013 3.43 3.19
148. Store/centre design
Process of designing shopping centres, stores, malls, etc.
Reimers and Clulow, 2004 3.43 3.31
149. Catchment psychographics
Classification of people in the catchment area according to their attitudes, aspirations, and other psychological criteria
Sullivan & Savitt, 1997 3.38 2.24
150. Orientation/flow (inc. signage)
A system of signs that provides information about the High Street’s offering and helps customers to orientate when on shopping trips, visits, etc.
Leo and Philippe, 2010 3.38 3.71
151. Retail unit sizes Size of a retail unit on the High Street
Yuo et al., 2003; Guy, 1998 3.38 3.21
152. Unfair competition
Competitive advantages of e.g. multiples vs independents and conventional shops that create disparities Gibbs, 1987 3.38 2.38
153. Ageing population People are living longer Bookman, 2008 3.33 2.10 154. Business ownership Refers to the type of ownership (sole trader, limited company, partnership, etc.) Henderson, 2011 3.33 2.76 155. Media Coverage A means of communicating about High Street – usually about events and festivities Warnaby and Yip, 2005 3.33 3.17 156. Tenant/manager relationships Links to the relationships between tenants and shopping centre managers (trust, warmness, friendliness) Prendergast et al., 1987 3.33 3.76
157.Centre empowerment
The degree to which centre managers provide support and treat tenants as an important element of centre
Roberts et al., 2010 3.32 3.76
158. Crowds
Total number of people gathered in the centre/High Street Gautschi, 1981 3.31 3.48
159. Branding
Collective centre identity communicated about centre
Roberts et al, 2010 3.29 3.33
160. Centre marketing
The centre’s promotional strategies and activities in order to attract visitors/shoppers Teller, 2008 3.29 3.76
161. Protection from weather
Store or High Street developments that can provide weather protection
Bennison and Davies, 1980 3.29 3.52
162. Tourism
All tourism attractions, number of tourists visiting, tourism expenditure, etc.
Hernandez and Jones, 2005 3.29 2.57
163. Regional rental level
The total rent per annum or rent per square foot/metre of a region Yuo et al, 2003 3.26 2.63
164. Car ownership Households with cars
Kervenoael et al, 2006 3.24 2.14
165. Social identity
A consumer’s self-concept derived from perceived membership in a relevant social group, in our case from local shopping and a sense of attachment to the community Miller, 2001 3.24 2.81
166. Street trading
The retail or wholesale trading of goods and services in streets and other related public areas such as alleyways, avenues and boulevards Jones et al., 2003 3.24 3.67
167. Low prices
Refers to the ability of some retailers (usually multiples, outlets, pound-shops) to offer permanently low prices Alport., 2005 3.20 2.71
30

168. Integration
Unification of spaces in the city centre for the benefit of the public
Karrholm et al., 2014 3.19 3.52
169. Merchandising
The activity of promoting the sale of goods at retail centres/shopping centres/High Street
De Nisco and Napolitano, 2006 3.19 3.81
170. Open/closed centre
Links to whether the centre is enclosed or open-air (exit one store before entering another or internal access to all shops)
Bennison and Davies, 1980 3.19 3.48
171. Opportunities to experiment
Links to opportunities for innovativeness and new ideas that can improve the High Street offer Neal, 2013 3.19 3.52
172. Organic development
Any store/high street/town centre development that stems from existing operations on the High Street/Town Centre
Bennison and Davies, 1980 3.19 3.48
173. Entry points
The number of routes that people choose to access the city centre
Borgers and Timmermans, 1986 3.10 2.71
174. Information (availability)
The type of information towns access and how this information is used
Larkham and Poper, 1989 3.10 3.57
175. Land ownership
Retail or other property, or land that is owned by an individual Henderson, 2011 3.10 2.95
176. Culture
The ideas, customs, and social behaviour of a particular people or society Robertson, 1997 3.05 2.19
177. Personal services
Commercial services such as catering and cleaning that supply the personal needs of customers
Kures and Ryan, 2012 3.05 3.81
178. Community benefits
Gestures from commercial developers to the community in exchange for planning permissions and agreements Howard, 2007 2.95 3.29
179. Community engagement
The process whereby public bodies reach out to communities to create empowerment opportunities
Depriest-Hricko and Prytherch, 2013 2.95 3.52
180. Community power
Refers to how much power the community has in decision-making for High Street change
Scottish Government, 2007 2.95 3.24
181. CPOs
Compulsory Purchase Order: Obtaining Land for retail and other purposes without owner’s consent
Imrie and Thomas, 1997 2.95 2.90
182. Social cohesion
Tendency for a group to be in unity towards a common goal Williams, 1999 2.95 2.86
183. Special offers
Degree of availability of special offers/discounts on the High Street, shopping centre, retail park, etc. Marjanen, 2000 2.95 3.62
184. Centre support for the local community and environment
Retailers’ CSR actions that benefit the centre’s environment and the community overall
Oppewal et al., 2006 2.95 3.80
185. Information (seeking)
Recollection of product/service-related information, or general information for a centre, either internal or external Brown, 1987 2.90 3.24
186. Social enterprise
Organisations (or even BIDs) that apply commercial strategies to maximize improvements in human and environmental well-being
De Magalhaes, 2012 2.90 3.10
31

187. Communication practices (development)
Refers to the number of channels and information that is provided to an area’s stakeholders for future land/building developments Henderson, 2011 2.86 2.95
188. Credit
Ability to purchase goods/services by credit cards, etc.
Sullivan & Savitt, 1997 2.86 2.52
189. Local resistance
Degree of support to a local market when “threatened” by large retailers
Hallsworth and Worthington, 2000 2.81 3.52
190. Methods of classification
Classification of High Streets/Town Centres/Shopping Centres by type of goods, shopping trip purpose, size, ownership Guy, 1998 2.81 1.81
191. Political climate
Current mood and opinions of political issues that affect decision-making Brown, 1987 2.81 2.00
192. Property age
Age of commercial/retail properties on the High Street
Wolverton and Carr, 2002 2.81 3.14
193. Performance Indicators (KPIs)
Type of performance measurements that are related to the High Street
Hogg, Medway, Warnaby, 2004 2.76 3.24
194. Ethnic retailers
The act of retailing by members of minority ethnic groups/immigrants on the High Street
Coca-Stefaniak et al., 2010 2.71 3.48
195. Upper floor usage
What upper-floor developments are needed and how they can assist in the viability of the High Street
Scottish Government, 2007 2.71 3.62
196. Baby-Change Facilities/Toilets
Hygiene factors of a centre including public toilets, baby rooms, diaper changing rooms
Reimers and Clulow, 2000 2.55 3.95 197. Deliveries The process of delivering goods to shops/centres Pickering, 1981 2.52 3.36
198. Cycling
Refers to all infrastructure and routes available for cyclists Biddulph, 2011 2.43 3.14
199. Land contamination
Pollution caused by past uses of a site, such as former factories, mines, steelworks, refineries and landfills.
Dabinett et al, 1999 2.43 2.62
200. Childminding centre
A daycare centre for children which is part of the shopping area
Johnston and Rimmer, 1967 2.29 3.95
201. Healthcare
Organized provision of medical care to individuals or a community May et al., 2012 2.2381 2.5238

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