Ministerial Visit & GFirst LEP to Officially Open the UK Digital Retail Innovation Centre. Google and IBM in attendance

The UK Digital Retail Innovation Centre (UK:DRIC) will be officially opened on 30 May 2019 by the Minister for Digital and the Creative Industries Margot James MP,  and the Chair of GFirst Local Enterprise Partnership, Dr Diane Savory OBE. Richard Graham MP will also be in attendance. The launch of the new national centre for the future of the high street, city and town centres will also be attended by tech giants Google and IBM.

Attendees of the launch event will be able see a number of retail innovation projects being showcased in partnership with the UK:DRIC, and will also be able to take part in Google Digital Garage workshops to learn new skills in data, tech and digital marketing.

330px-Official_portrait_of_Margot_James_crop_2

Margot James MP, Minister DCMS

The UK:DRIC will be working with retailers large and independent to help them develop and apply best practice and upskill.  It has been based in Gloucester as the city provides an exemplar location where solutions have been tested and resolved quickly. The GL Card was one of these solutions and in June 2018, won the hotly-contested ATCM (Association of Town and City Management) award for “Best Digital High Street Project”, beating off 40 other destinations.

As many towns and centres have suffered a decline over the years from the combined effects of out of town retail parks, internet shopping and a change in consumer behaviour, it has become increasingly crucial for retailers and place managers to examine technologies and solutions that will help shape the future of our town and city environments. Understanding the urgency of the situation Gfirst LEP has granted UK Government funding of £400,000 to the place making organisation Marketing Gloucester to launch the UK:DRIC to help develop innovative solutions to the challenges faced by the high street that can be replicated and scaled up across the UK.

Over the past five years the Gloucester has shown that it is proving to be a testbed and pathfinder for future city solutions and the ideal place to locate this national centre.  Its successes in innovation include:

  • Gloucester was one of the first in the world and the first city in the UK to adopt a three-in-one integrated solution with CCTV over IP, free high-speed WIFI across the whole city and 4G being installed simultaneously, winning the city prestigious Gordon McLanaghan Security Innovation Award. The approach has since been adopted by Cardiff, Glasgow, Nottingham, Leicester and Newcastle.
  • Gloucester became the second destination in the world and the first in the UK to partner with Niantic Labs on the Google FieldTrip™ app, which allows virtual, location-based tourism information through smartphones, tablets and wearables. When Niantic was acquired by Nintendo they went on to develop Pokemon Go, the relationship with Marketing Gloucester began to pay real dividends to the city as much of the location data for Pokestops and Gyms was based on existing information uploaded for Fieldtrip™ and Niantic’s app Ingress™. Gloucester has an especially rich environment for Pokemon Go™ players which has attracted players from around the region, encouraging local businesses to purchase lures for outside their premises and boosting the local economy.

Two projects currently being implemented are those being developed by Rewarding Visits, which was granted £1 million from the UK Government, Innovate UK funding, and Maybetech, a solution that is being delivered as part of the DCLG, Great British High Street Project.  Both of these are operating within the digital high street environment with the aim of encouraging purchasing to be made in bricks and mortar business rather than online.

Guy Chatburn of Rewarding Visits, comments “We chose Gloucester as the partner location for the third phase of the role out of our technology, primarily because alongside a great digital infrastructure, the city had a “can do” organisation like Marketing Gloucester that already had the trust of a wide range number of partners throughout the city which  it could rally together relatively easily in order to enable our project to happen.  They were especially good at helping us work with other organisations operating in complimentary areas such as Stagecoach and Trinity Mirror.  There was also a much lower learning curve as Gloucester has a team with a understanding of the tech and the issues facing towns and cities, and that has definitely lead to us having a much stronger offering in a shorter period of time”.

Prof. Richard Cuthbertson of Said Business School, University of Oxford, examining Gloucester’s example as part of a Europe-wide study  “In our research of European cities with a positive focus towards digital technologies, especially those involving small retailers, Gloucester is an excellent example. This city recognises the need for an independent, third party enabler… providing a long-term, single point of contact, developing the relevant digital and physical infrastructure with multiple means of access for customers and retailers, while utilising simple tools, all within a strategy for “place” that encompasses the individual flavour provided by local retailers and services.”

 

ENDS.

 

 

 

UK:DRIC Launch

Thursday 30 May 2019

The Promenade, First Floor Eastgate Shopping Centre, Gloucester GL1 1AG

11am                  Event starts

11:30am            Talks start in CONFERENCE ROOM:

Diane Savory OBE –  GFirstLEP – Introduction

Jason Smith – Marketing Gloucester – Why Gloucester.
Jayden Halliday – Leading Edge Only (LEO)

Steve Weston – Localy (new project to be launched in Gloucester)

Polly Barnfield OBE – Maybe*
Oliver Banks – Retail Transformation Show
Revealing the Top 5 Retail Challenges – What next?

12.15pm          Guests free to network and view exhibitions

EXHIBITION SPACE: ACP – Wearable Art, OhBOT, UoG Interior Design Screen, ELOTouch, Gamar, IDScan

POD1:    Innovation Lab – Gloucestershire Libraries

POD2: THEIA and Smile Reader

POD3:    HR Department

POD4:    The Growth Hub and Retail Rocks

CO-WORKING SPACE: IBM, LEO, Nettl, ShopAppy, ELOtouch

CONFERENCE SPACE: UoG School of Business and Technology, Smart World Connect, GfirstLEP, Maybe*

2pm-3.30pm   Google Digital Garage

4.30pm            Minister for Digital & the Creative Industries Margot James MP arrives

5.00pm            DEMONSTRATIONS: Gamar, IDScan, Gloucester360, ELO

6.00pm            Event Ends

Gloucester Tall Ships and Adventure Show gives £11.2 million boost to local economy.

After what is being universally hailed as the most exciting Gloucester Tall Ships and Adventure show in its history, businesses across the city have been praising the event for the extra visitors and sales it has brought in to the whole city of Gloucester.

One national brand retailer on Westgate Street reported a 96.6% increase in sales for the same period in the previous year achieving a week’s sales in just two days, making it one of the top ten performing stores in the UK chain.

The hospitality sector has also had a bumper weekend with J D Wetherspoons reporting the best days trade since they were established, even beating records during the Rugby World Cup 2015.

Hotels and bars across the city were filled across the city and with the Gloucester Sea Shanty festival taking place at the same time at fifteen venues across the city, the evening economy has also performed incredibly well with footfall figures showing a 38.1% increase in visitors to lower Eastgate Street indicating that festival goers were staying well into the night to keep the festival vibe going. Kieron Bates, of Rene Group and a Director of Gloucester BID was delighted with the weekends events commenting “Events such as these have a huge positive impact us on our business and others in the city and draw in visitors from all over the country and internationally. The more we can do of this type of event the better”

Marketing Gloucester have produced some preliminary figures which indicate the economic impact of the event on the city, with over 200,000 visitors to the city over the three days of the event it is estimated that 2019’s biggest ever event will have given an £11.2 million boost to the local economy –activity that is equivalent to producing 200 full time jobs for a year.

Gloucester has been been hugely successful in developing itself as a destination for tourists and in 2015 the city overtook Cheltenham to become the most popular in terms of the number of day visitors and total spend of visitors and has been with nearly £205 million spent by visitors in 2017, an 62% increase on 2010.

Some highlights from the independent research which has been commissioned by Marketing Gloucester include:

·       3,203,000 day visits by tourist to Gloucester

·       920,000 nights stayed in Gloucester Hotels, B&Bs and so-on

·       An increase in the proportion of employment related to tourism from 5% of jobs to 7% with over 4,100 people now employed in the sector

Heat map UK

Above is a heat map showing where UK Visitors travelled from to Tall Ships and adventure Show

Jason Smith, Chief Executive of Marketing Gloucester commented on the successes saying “The Tall Ships and Adventure festival, is just one of the many activities partners in the city are undertaking as part of an holistic multistrand branding exercise for the city of Gloucester – alongside the physical regeneration this is helping to reposition “brand Gloucester” transforming its reputation as an exciting visitor destination.  The knock on impact of consistent, quality events, development of visitor attractions such as the Cathedral, museums, docks and Gloucester Quays is that more wealth and jobs are being created in the city and that demand for overnight accommodation is driving a boom in interest from Hotel operators wanting to invest in the city.”

Paul James, leader of Gloucester City council was also very happy with the results and emphasised that they were part of a ten year visitor economy strategy developed by Marketing Gloucester on behalf of and adopted by the city council available at this link >

https://www.gloucester.gov.uk/media/1371/growing_gloucesters_visitor_economy.pdf

“Gloucester has really shown itself at its best this bank holiday weekend and with this being ten year anniversary since the opening of Gloucester Quays and the first Tall Ships show it is evident to everyone how far the city has come in that time, it will be very exciting to see how the planned regeneration for Kings Quarter will continue the city’s progress”

“Developing a strategic responses for the City of Gloucester to mitigate the effects of Global trends for decreases in footfall and increases in void retail properties in town and city centres by growing the visitor economy through development of product and place branding and marketing”

Evidences of Global trends for decreases in footfall and increases in void retail properties in town and city centres and causal relationship
Over the past ten years there has been a sea change to city and town centres across the world. The impact of out of town shopping, particularly on middle-order district and local town centres has been ‘strongly competitive’ rather than ‘benignly complementary’ (Thomas, et al., (2004))and latterly the rise of online shopping has taken their toll on many high streets including reducing footfall and increasing vacancy rates through competitive pressures (Weltevreden, 2007)
The changes in market share of traditional retailing in town and city centres has mainly considered vis-à-vis their supply side effects for example, the level to which online shopping and out of town has replaced elements of use of traditional town centres across Europe and the world (Weltevreden, 2007) (Weltevreden, et al., 2014). In the UK between 2008 and May 2018, 409 large and medium sized retailers have gone into administration affecting 28,378 retail stores and 280,425 employees (Bamfield, 2018).
Other reasons that have been identified as contributing to the downturn in bricks and mortar retailers include drops in demand for consumer goods, in part driven by the sluggish economic growth since the financial crisis, intensive price competition and a developing trend for a smaller proportion of household income to be spent on retail, supplanted by spend on holidays and travel, eating and drinking out, experiences and weddings – all of which are growing faster than spend on retail (Bamfield, 2018). This downward trend in spending on comparison goods seems to be replicated in the USA. According to retail consultant Howard Davidowitz, numerous USA midmarket malls, are suffering from this drop in spend (The Manchester Guardian, 2014). Whilst out of town shopping and the rise of internet shopping may not be the only causes, the literature suggest that they are certainly significant contributory factors (Astbury, 2014) (Weltevreden, et al., 2014). It is worth noting though that although there have been significant swings towards online shopping the research evidences that still the vast majority of retail is taking place within a physical retail environment with eMarketer estimating that globally retail ecommerce sales will increase to $4.058 trillion in 2020, making up 14.6% of total retail spending (Chaffey, 2018). and that some retailers are already indicating that future models of retail will likely still benefit from retaining physical “bricks and mortar locations” often on the historical high streets (Retail Customer Experience, 2018)(Grimsey, 2018) Certainly “service” retail which is co-produced with the consumer benefits greatly from having a physical presence on the high street there are however some disadvantages to this high street presence, not least of which in the UK is the disparity in taxation – according to Centre for Cities Research business rates are the equivalent of 2.3% of bricks-and-mortar retailers’ sales and 0.6% of online traders’ sales and prevent shops competing effectively with their online rivals. (Bamfield, 2018)
International trends have shown an increase in empty retail units and a decrease in footfall in many towns and cities (Weltevreden, et al., 2014). It is expected globally that these trends will continue (Ellis-Chadwick, 2018). In the UK as a whole, Store vacancies have been running at around 11.9% for some time, although there was a rise to a vacancy rate of 14.3% in 2011 (Bamfield, 2018). As of February 2019 UK vacancy rates are running at 11.5% (Local Data Company, n.d.). It is widely reported that negative changes to a place including high retail vacancy rates and the loss of key industries or trends in mobility and tourism, can profoundly undermine the reputation of a place (Millington & Ntounis, 2017) which in turn can lead to a deleterious cycle of footfall declines, spend declines, poorly trading/failed businesses, town/city centres becoming less attractive due to higher vacancy rates which again leads to lower footfall and so-on. This is not necessarily demonstrated in all areas, and local effects can influence this (Grimsey, 2018)

Local Impact on Gloucester UK
For the purpose of the this analysis we will be looking in detail as to the impact of these global changes on the city centre of Gloucester, UK a small city with a population of 129,000 and with a hinterland of 150,000 (Office for National Statistics , 2017)
Vacancy Rates and Footfall
As of January 2019, Gloucester has been similarly impacted by the difficulties faced by the high street. We will be investigating through this report how local initiatives appear to have affected the area, analysing the statistics for footfall and vacant retail properties to note differences from national and global changes and investigate any probable causes for those differences in Gloucester.
In Gloucester over the last ten years the global effects of the changes have been mitigated at times for example in 2010 the city was reported to have among the highest number of empty shops in England, according to a study commissioned by the BBC’s Inside Out West programme from the Local Data Company .(BBC, 2010) with retail vacancies at nearly 21.9% in 2010 however these fell to 12.1% in 2016 but rose by December 2019 to 19.3%. (Local Data Company, n.d.). Note that these figures relate to the historic city centre and that current figures for vacancies including Glouecster Quays bring the current vacancy rate to 12.8%

Figure 1figure 1
Source (Local Data Company, n.d.)

 

Figure 2figure 2

 

Source Marketing Gloucester

Figure 3figure 3
(source Springboard)

Figure 4figure 4

• Impact on perceptions of place
In Gloucester surveys of local visitors reports in local press (Phillips, 2018) indicate a negative impact on perception of the areas of the city with higher retail vacancies c.f. areas that have been regenerated and perceived to have a lower number of retail vacancies (My Local Economy, 2017)
• Political impact
The concern expressed by businesses and residents in Gloucester has led to a focus by local politicians on physical and culture regeneration with the aim of redeveloping the city and repositioning from a comparison shopping centre to a destination for residents and visitors (Council, 2019).The poor perception of place has been seen as being a potential negative by the political incumbents (Conservative) and conversely positive news in terms of footfall and vacancy rates along with regeneration activity has been seen as a benchmark of political success (Gloucester Conservatives, 2016)
Specific Local issues
In Gloucester as with many UK cities there has been a closing of branches of a number of high street chains which it might be concluded ad naturam would impact footfall. The local picture, evidences that the model is more complicated than it might initially appear for example the percentages of empty stores was skewed with 54 new retail and leisure units being built at the new Gloucester Quays designer outlet during 2009. Many of these units remained unoccupied after the outlet centre was opened and were then filled over subsequent years. As of 2019 there are 641 retail and leisure units (Local Data Company, n.d.) within the city centre of Gloucester as defined earlier in this document, including those at Gloucester Quays – it is evident how the occupancy of these additional units would affect reported percentage levels of vacancy. These additional units at Gloucester Quays were mostly filled by 2015. A further complication has been added to the analysis of 2017 onwards as alongside the impact of national chains closing, there has been a hold back on releasing some of the empty units which have been bought by Gloucester City Council as art of its strategy of land acquisition and consolidation to enable an planned regeneration of a quarter of the city
It can be concluded that Gloucester is subject to the same Global trends regarding footfall and vacancy rates. One element that needs to be taken into consideration in Gloucester is the significant emphasis that has been placed on the visitor economy and events as drivers for footfall, Events such as Gloucester Goes Retro 25th August 2018 increased footfall by 40,000 and in one of the busier retail areas increased footfall for the week by 20% (Local Data Company, n.d.)
The strategic responses to date and planned and evaluation of the efficacy of historical initiatives and examination of current and future planned responses c.f. best practice
Historic strategic responses
As indicated by the literature it has been common practice by cities which have suffered decline to develop strategies to overcome negative stereotypes and change the image of a place into one attractive to investors, property speculators and visitors (Millington & Ntounis, 2017) . The importance of “place marketing” in post‐industrial towns is well documented (Kotler, et al., 1999) and the role of events within a place marketing strategy has been recognised (Wood, n.d.)
Following a high impact flood in 2007 and the subsequent world-wide economic crises the leader and cabinet of Gloucester City Council formed Marketing Gloucester Ltd (Marketing Gloucester Ltd, n.d.) a new public private partnership with a wide remit to engage in place making activities and especially focussed on Place Marketing (Parker, 2011) recognising that to reverse long-term structural decline an holistic place management approach would need to be implemented which following identified best practice widely engaged stakeholders (Brand, 2007). This multifaceted coordinated approach is one that is widely recognised model (Switzer, 2009) (Vanalo, 2008). Also much emphasis is made in the literature that developing the multi-layered “product” of place is a prerequisite for the implementation of an interconnected and credible place-branding strategy (Ntounis & Kavaratzis, 2017)

Strategic initiatives to drive growth through developing the visitor economy through branding, events and promotion

In 2014 a wide reaching strategy was produced by Marketing Gloucester and adopted by Gloucester City Council entitled “Growing Gloucester’s Visitor Economy” (Jason Smith, 2014). This aimed to identify the barriers to growth and set out key actionable strategies and identified 20 areas that could be worked on in order to develop the place product and place branding and marketing, there were 54 actions that were highlighted that could help deliver growth (Jason Smith, 2014, pp. 24-31).
One element of this strategy was to develop the concept of experiential branding through events that would build on the history and heritage of the city and would provide ample opportunities for place marketing to promote the brand positioning (Vanalo, 2008) (Lodder, 2010)

Figures 5, 6

Capture

Statistics (figures 5,6) indicate that there has been an upturn in visitors to Gloucester due to this strategy
Building on strategic responses for future growth
There is evidence that best success in place repositioning is based a multistrand, holistic approach which builds a strategy based on “clear or shared” understanding of the identity of a place (Millington & Ntounis, 2017). For those involved in place branding and place marketing this includes two significant elements, firstly the positive portrayal of a place focussing on “the good bits” to attract inward investment, influence the political influencers and encourage visitors and topophilia, secondly the controlling, containment or ignoring of “the bad bits” (Hankinson, 2003) .
Using Events and Place Marketing to develop brand and drive footfall
It has been demonstrated by the direct impact on footfall of events marketing (Wood & Masterman, 2007)and the positive effects on place branding (Wood & Masterman, 2007) that events and place marketing have been significantly successful in having an impact on the growth of the local economy in Gloucester and drivers for footfall. Much of this success has been due to the successful implementation of a focussed place branding exercise and place marketing by Gloucester’s place making organisation Marketing Gloucester (My Local Economy, 2017) (Creative Tourist Consults, 2016) this approach has been successful by the treating of place as an assemblage where contributory elements are used to develop a nuclear product (Hankinson, 2003). This strategy responds to a number of the most important factors identified as affecting vitality and viability of town and city centre’s (Cathy Parker, 2014) such as improving visitor experience, providing entertainment and leisure activities, improving attractiveness through city dressing for events and giving a “hook” to hang place branding and marketing, which is recognised as being an important use of events (Pugh & Wood, 2004). Key to this strategy will be looking at historical anniversaries and connections to significant events as they relate specifically to Gloucester.
Although there should be a multistrand approach to the global challenges faced by Gloucester of falling footfall and increased vacancy rates (Grimsey, 2018) many of these are not quick fixes and require significant capital investment (Gov.UK Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government, 2018)
Resources necessary to implement this response
The building blocks of place branding process have been described as being analysis, strategy and participation (Ntounis & Kavaratzis, 2017)

Information
As demonstrated earlier in this document evidence of trends in footfall and vacancy rates, along with tourism visitor numbers which are collated from footfall counters, vacancy rate counts, Acorn T-Stats, Visit England and so-on are important to informing strategic responses. It will be important to ensure that the collation of these datasets and analysis (Ntounis & Kavaratzis, 2017) is consistent and adequately resourced.
Leadership/Organisation/ Coordination

Effective leadership is identified as essential to effective place branding (Hankinson, 2003) and as discussed previously wide stakeholder buy-in and support can increase effectiveness of activities (Brand, 2007). In the city of Gloucester this leadership is provided on behalf of stakeholders by bodies including the BID, Gloucester City Council, Gloucester Civic Trust, Glouceste Heritage Forum, Gloucester Culture Trust, Gloucester Chamber of Commerce and Marketing Gloucester. The strategy for Place branding, Place Marketing and city events are coordinated and lead on by Marketing Gloucester as mandate by contract with the City Council and Gloucester BID and by formal and informal arrangement with other bodies. Each of these bodies is mandated by statutory status or by their stakeholders. This continued support from stakeholders will be an essential resource to the success of developing and implementing the strategic response of utilising events and especially heritage themed events as a focus for place branding and place marketing. Bodies such as Marketing Gloucester which provide leadership need to be adequately funded to ensure success.
Stakeholder engagement
The place product is managed by a complex organisation of public and private sector stakeholders (Hankinson, 2004) making it difficult to present a consistent brand proposition. Place branding therefore inevitably becomes a coordinated process rather than a managed activity (Hankinson, 2003). Furthermore, the role of coordinator usually falls to local authorities, which operate on low budgets and are subject to political control and interference which further exacerbates the task of brand management. (Hankinson, 2003) In the need to resource this activity has been recognised and has been given to the public private partnership organisation Marketing Gloucester. These type of “Urban Partnerships” are often held up to be good models for stakeholder engagement (Le Feuvre, et al., 2016)
It is important looking forward to continue to review the type of urban partnership that best suits the aims of developing and delivering the strategic responses outlined in the place specific context ensuring avoidance of the “transient tranquilizer of avoidance” or the “high-stakes politics of absolute conquest” relationships between stakeholders, ensuring the main focus of stakeholders is knowledge exchange and collaborative working to give the best opportunity to maximize the chances for success from effective partnership working (Brand, 2007)
It has been recognised in the literature that successful shared intelligence amongst stakeholders engaged in place management can “help inform the identification of new strategic objectives, appropriate interventions and project planning and delivery” (Millington & Ntounis, 2017) Ensuring that there are fora to facilitate stakeholder informing and shaping strategy and helping to implement strategy will be key to the success of the proposed place branding strategic response. These same stakeholders will be needed to provide organisational, leadership and financial resource.
Funding
Key to successful place branding and place marketing is ensuring that there is sufficient funding to implement strategies. Marketing Gloucester has developed a rolling 5 year business plan which identifies that a successful implementation of the above strategy including the elements provided on behalf of Gloucester BID will require direct funding for place branding activities, including events and place marketing of approximately £900,000 per annum plus resource for the funding required from partners or leveraged funding for other place making activities.
In April 2018 to March 2019 funding of £1.1 million for Events and Marketing in Gloucester which are aimed to develop place branding, drive footfall in Gloucester came from – Gloucester City Council , Gloucester Business Improvement District (BID), private sector sponsorship, and funding from other bodies such as Visit Britain, Arts Council England, Heritage lottery Fund GFirst LEP and the Heritage Lottery Fund. It is envisioned that the ongoing strategy which has been attractive to these funders will continue and built upon with ongoing funding support .
BIDs are becoming increasingly important in the funding and steering of place marketing including events (Morcol, 2008). In Gloucester there is a close symbiotic relationship between the BID and the Destination Management Organisation which is run by Marketing Gloucester. Nearly £2.5 million over 5 years has been committed by nearly 600 businesses to place management, place marketing and events. Currently Gloucester City Council commits £249,000 per annum to supporting Marketing Gloucester, £160,000 of which is spent on events (Gloucester City Council, 2018). In 2019/20 sponsorship and commercial income is expected to reach just under £0.5million.
Currently consideration is being given to Gloucester applying for 2025 UK City of Culture status we would expect the cost to prepare these bids to require and additional £150,000 to £200,000 of direct funding (BirminghamLive, 2010).  There is yet to be produced compelling evidence that UK City of Culture has a comparable return on investment compared with other initiatives.
Conclusion
It is the development of the place product through events, often utilising key heritage physical assets, that is the key factor in the proposed strategy enabling the development of place branding and place marketing activities to drive footfall and help decrease vacancy rates.

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Labour Market Profile – Gloucester

The profile brings together data from several sources. Details about these and related terminology are given in the definitions section.

Resident Population

Total population (2017)

Gloucester
(numbers)
South West
(numbers)
Great Britain
(numbers)
All people 129,100 5,559,300 64,169,400
Males 63,900 2,734,200 31,661,600
Females 65,200 2,825,100 32,507,800
Source: ONS mid-year population estimates

Population aged 16-64 (2017)

Gloucester
(numbers)
Gloucester
(%)
South West
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
All people aged 16-64 81,900 63.4 60.6 62.9
Males aged 16-64 41,100 64.3 61.4 63.6
Females aged 16-64 40,800 62.6 59.9 62.2
Source: ONS mid-year population estimates
Notes:   % is a proportion of total population

Labour Supply

Employment and unemployment (Oct 2017-Sep 2018)

Gloucester
(numbers)
Gloucester
(%)
South West
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
All people
Economically active† 70,700 82.6 81.1 78.5
In employment† 69,500 81.1 78.7 75.1
Employees† 61,100 71.3 66.3 64.3
Self employed† 8,100 9.3 12.2 10.6
Unemployed (model-based)§ 2,000 2.8 2.9 4.2
Males
Economically active† 36,900 88.3 85.1 83.4
In employment† 35,700 85.3 82.8 79.8
Employees† 30,200 71.9 66.8 65.4
Self employed† 5,400 13.4 15.8 14.1
Unemployed§ # # 2.7 4.2
Females
Economically active† 33,800 76.9 77.1 73.6
In employment† 33,800 76.9 74.6 70.5
Employees† 30,800 70.7 65.7 63.1
Self employed† # # 8.6 7.1
Unemployed§ ! ! 3.2 4.1
Source: ONS annual population survey
#   Sample size too small for reliable estimate
!   Estimate is not available since sample size is disclosive
†   –   numbers are for those aged 16 and over, % are for those aged 16-64
§   –   numbers and % are for those aged 16 and over. % is a proportion of economically active

Economic inactivity (Oct 2017-Sep 2018)

Gloucester
(level)
Gloucester
(%)
South West
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
All people
Total 14,300 17.4 18.9 21.5
Student 4,500 31.0 25.9 27.0
looking after family/home # # 21.0 23.9
temporary sick ! ! 2.2 2.0
long-term sick 3,900 27.0 21.7 22.4
discouraged ! ! 0.5 0.4
retired # # 16.4 12.9
other # # 12.4 11.2
wants a job 4,900 34.0 22.4 21.4
does not want a job 9,500 66.0 77.6 78.6
Source: ONS annual population survey
#   Sample size too small for reliable estimate
!   Estimate is not available since sample size is disclosive
Notes:   numbers are for those aged 16-64.
  % is a proportion of those economically inactive, except total, which is a proportion of those aged 16-64

Workless Housholds (Jan-Dec 2017)

Gloucester South West Great Britain
Number of Workless Households # 192,500 2,943,800
Percentage of Households that are Workless # 11.3 14.5
Number of children in Workless Households # 66,200 1,280,500
Percentage of children who are in Households that are Workless # 7.1 10.7
Source: ONS annual population survey – households by combined economic activity status
#   Sample size too small for reliable estimate
Notes:   Only includes those households that have at least one person aged 16 to 64.
Children refers to all children aged under 16.

Employment by occupation (Oct 2017-Sep 2018)

Gloucester
(numbers)
Gloucester
(%)
South West
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
Soc 2010 major group 1-3 27,200 39.2 44.9 46.1
1 Managers, directors and senior officials 7,700 11.1 11.2 10.8
2 Professional occupations 8,900 12.8 19.1 20.5
3 Associate professional & technical 10,600 15.2 14.4 14.7
Soc 2010 major group 4-5 14,600 21.0 21.1 20.3
4 Administrative & secretarial 8,100 11.7 9.7 10.1
5 Skilled trades occupations 6,400 9.3 11.4 10.1
Soc 2010 major group 6-7 13,200 19.0 16.9 16.7
6 Caring, leisure and Other Service occupations 6,600 9.5 9.4 9.1
7 Sales and customer service occs 6,600 9.5 7.5 7.6
Soc 2010 major group 8-9 14,500 20.8 17.2 17.0
8 Process plant & machine operatives 7,000 10.1 6.3 6.4
9 Elementary occupations 7,400 10.7 10.9 10.5
Source: ONS annual population survey
Notes:   Numbers and % are for those of 16+
% is a proportion of all persons in employment

Qualifications (Jan 2017-Dec 2017)

Gloucester
(level)
Gloucester
(%)
South West
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
NVQ4 and above 21,700 26.8 39.0 38.6
NVQ3 and above 38,100 47.2 60.3 57.2
NVQ2 and above 56,300 69.8 79.0 74.7
NVQ1 and above 67,000 83.1 90.1 85.4
Other qualifications 8,200 10.1 4.9 6.9
No qualifications 5,500 6.8 5.0 7.7
Source: ONS annual population survey
Notes:   For an explanation of the qualification levels see the definitions section.
Numbers and % are for those of aged 16-64
% is a proportion of resident population of area aged 16-64

Earnings by place of residence (2018)

Gloucester
(pounds)
South West
(pounds)
Great Britain
(pounds)
Gross weekly pay
Full-time workers 507.2 537.6 571.1
Male full-time workers 552.1 583.0 612.2
Female full-time workers 439.1 473.8 510.0
Hourly pay – excluding overtime
Full-time workers 12.67 13.52 14.36
Male full-time workers 13.22 14.19 14.89
Female full-time workers 11.85 12.43 13.56
Source: ONS annual survey of hours and earnings – resident analysis
Notes:   Median earnings in pounds for employees living in the area.

Out-Of-Work Benefits

Under Universal Credit a broader span of claimants are required to look for work than under Jobseeker’s Allowance. As Universal Credit Full Service is rolled out in particular areas, the number of people recorded as being on the Claimant Count is therefore likely to rise.

Claimant count by sex – not seasonally adjusted (December 2018)

Gloucester
(numbers)
Gloucester
(%)
South West
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
All people 1,905 2.3 1.8 2.4
Males 1,135 2.8 2.1 2.8
Females 770 1.9 1.5 1.9
Source: ONS Claimant count by sex and age
Note:   % is the number of claimants as a proportion of resident population of area aged 16-64 and gender

Claimant count by age – not seasonally adjusted (December 2018)

Gloucester
(level)
Gloucester
(%)
South West
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
Aged 16+ 1,905 2.3 1.8 2.4
Aged 16 to 17 5 0.2 0.2 0.2
Aged 18 to 24 360 3.2 2.5 3.2
Aged 18 to 21 225 3.5 2.6 3.4
Aged 25 to 49 1,050 2.4 2.0 2.4
Aged 50+ 485 2.0 1.5 2.1
Source: ONS Claimant count by sex and age
Note:   % is number of claimants as a proportion of resident population of the same age

Working-age client group – main benefit claimants – not seasonally adjusted (November 2016)[Discontinued]

Gloucester
(numbers)
Gloucester
(%)
South West
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
Total claimants 9,290 11.4 9.7 11.0
By statistical group
Job seekers 980 1.2 0.8 1.1
ESA and incapacity benefits 5,170 6.3 5.5 6.1
Lone parents 930 1.1 0.8 1.0
Carers 1,210 1.5 1.4 1.7
Others on income related benefits 140 0.2 0.2 0.2
Disabled 700 0.9 0.9 0.8
Bereaved 150 0.2 0.2 0.2
Main out-of-work benefits† 7,230 8.9 7.2 8.4
Source: DWP benefit claimants – working age client group
†   Main out-of-work benefits includes the groups: job seekers, ESA and incapacity benefits, lone parents and others on income related benefits. See the Definitions and Explanations below for details
Notes:   % is a proportion of resident population of area aged 16-64
Figures in this table do not yet include claimants of Universal Credit

Labour Demand

Jobs density (2017)

Gloucester
(jobs)
Gloucester
(density)
South West
(density)
Great Britain
(density)
Jobs density 70,000 0.85 0.89 0.86
Source: ONS jobs density
Notes:   The density figures represent the ratio of total jobs to population aged 16-64.
Total jobs includes employees, self-employed, government-supported trainees and HM Forces

Employee jobs (2017)

Gloucester
(employee jobs)
Gloucester
(%)
South West
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
Total employee jobs 63,000
Full-time 40,000 63.5 64.4 67.5
Part-time 23,000 36.5 35.7 32.5
Employee jobs by industry
B : Mining and quarrying 0 0.0 0.1 0.2
C : Manufacturing 4,000 6.3 8.6 8.2
D : Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 1,750 2.8 0.5 0.5
E : Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 75 0.1 0.8 0.7
F : Construction 3,000 4.8 5.3 4.8
G : Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 11,000 17.5 16.0 15.2
H : Transportation and storage 1,750 2.8 3.6 4.7
I : Accommodation and food service activities 4,000 6.3 9.8 7.5
J : Information and communication 2,500 4.0 3.6 4.4
K : Financial and insurance activities 3,500 5.6 3.5 3.5
L : Real estate activities 800 1.3 1.5 1.7
M : Professional, scientific and technical activities 3,000 4.8 7.3 8.4
N : Administrative and support service activities 5,000 7.9 7.4 9.1
O : Public administration and defence; compulsory social security 4,000 6.3 4.2 4.3
P : Education 4,500 7.1 9.4 8.9
Q : Human health and social work activities 12,000 19.0 13.7 13.3
R : Arts, entertainment and recreation 900 1.4 2.5 2.6
S : Other service activities 1,250 2.0 1.9 2.0
Source: ONS Business Register and Employment Survey : open access
–   Data unavailable
Notes:   % is a proportion of total employee jobs excluding farm-based agriculture
Employee jobs excludes self-employed, government-supported trainees and HM Forces
Data excludes farm-based agriculture

Earnings by place of work (2018)

Gloucester
(pounds)
South West
(pounds)
Great Britain
(pounds)
Gross weekly pay
Full-time workers 545.8 531.2 570.9
Male full-time workers 614.1 574.9 611.8
Female full-time workers 480.0 469.3 509.8
Hourly pay – excluding overtime
Full-time workers 14.33 13.35 14.35
Male full-time workers 16.00 13.98 14.88
Female full-time workers 12.91 12.31 13.55
Source: ONS annual survey of hours and earnings – workplace analysis
Notes:   Median earnings in pounds for employees working in the area.

Civil service jobs as a proportion of employee jobs (2018)

Gloucester
(headcount)
Gloucester
(%)
South West
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
Total civil service jobs 730 1.2 1.7 1.5
Full-time 440 0.7 1.3 1.1
Part-time 290 0.5 0.3 0.3
Source: ONS Annual Civil Service Employment Survey
Note:   Percentages based on % of total jobs in area that are civil service jobs

Composition of civil service jobs by sex and hours worked (2018)

Gloucester
(headcount)
Gloucester
(%)
South West
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
Total civil service jobs 730
Full-time 440 60.3 80.8 76.9
Part-time 290 39.7 19.2 23.1
Male 260 35.6 54.0 45.7
Full-time 200 27.4 49.9 41.5
Part-time 60 8.2 4.1 4.2
Female 470 64.4 46.0 54.3
Full-time 240 32.9 30.8 35.4
Part-time 230 31.5 15.2 18.9
Source: ONS Annual Civil Service Employment Survey
Note:   Percentages based on % of Total Civil Service Jobs made up of each category

Businesses

UK Business Counts (2018)

Gloucester
(numbers)
Gloucester
(%)
South West
(numbers)
South West
(%)
Enterprises
Micro (0 to 9) 3,120 85.6 206,350 89.0
Small (10 to 49) 390 10.7 21,185 9.1
Medium (50 to 249) 105 2.9 3,435 1.5
Large (250+) 25 0.7 780 0.3
Total 3,645 231,745
Local Units
Micro (0 to 9) 3,790 78.1 230,155 84.0
Small (10 to 49) 835 17.2 36,035 13.2
Medium (50 to 249) 205 4.2 6,750 2.5
Large (250+) 25 0.5 900 0.3
Total 4,855 273,840
Source: Inter Departmental Business Register (ONS)
Note:   % is as a proportion of total (enterprises or local units)

Definitions and Explanations

Resident Population
The estimated population of an area includes all those usually resident in the area, whatever their nationality. HM Forces stationed outside the United Kingdom are excluded but foreign forces stationed here are included. Students are taken to be resident at their term-time address.
Labour Supply
Labour supply consists of people who are employed, as well as those people defined as unemployed or economically inactive, who can be considered to be potential labour supply. Information in this section relates to the characteristics of people living in an area.

Most labour supply data comes from the Annual Population Survey (APS). The APS is the largest regular household survey in the United Kingdom. It includes data from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), plus further sample boosts in England, Wales and Scotland. The survey includes data from a sample of around 256,000 people aged 16 and over.

As APS estimates are based on samples, they are subject to sampling variability. This means that if another sample for the same period were drawn, a different estimate might be produced. In general, the larger the number of people in a sample, the smaller the variation between estimates. Estimates for smaller areas such as local authorities are therefore less reliable than those for larger areas such as regions. When the sample size is too small to produce reliable estimates, the estimates are replaced with a #.

Economically Active
Economically active
People who are either in employment or unemployed.
Economic activity rate
People, who are economically active, expressed as a percentage of all people.
In employment
People who did some paid work in the reference week (whether as an employee or self employed); those who had a job that they were temporarily away from (eg, on holiday); those on government-supported training and employment programmes; and those doing unpaid family work.
Employment rate
The number of people in employment expressed as a percentage of all people aged 16-64.
Employees and self employed
The division between employees and self employed is based on survey respondents’ own assessment of their employment status. The percentage show the number in each category as a percentage of all people aged 16-64. The sum of employees and self employed will not equal the in employment figure due to the inclusion of those on government-supported training and employment programmes, and those doing unpaid family work in the latter.
Unemployed
Refers to people without a job who were available to start work in the two weeks following their interview and who had either looked for work in the four weeks prior to interview or were waiting to start a job they had already obtained.
Model-based unemployed
As unemployed form a small percentage of the population, the APS unemployed estimates within local authorities are based on very small samples so for many areas would be unreliable. To overcome this ONS has developed a statistical model that provides better estimates of total unemployed for unitary authorities and local authority districts (unemployment estimates for counties are direct survey estimates). Model-based estimates are not produced for male or female unemployed.

The model-based estimate improves on the APS estimate by borrowing strength from the Claimant Count to produce an estimate that is more precise (i.e. has a smaller confidence interval). The number of people measured by the Claimant Count is not itself a measure of unemployment but is strongly correlated with unemployment, and, as it is an administrative count, is known without sampling error. The gain in precision is greatest for areas with smaller sample sizes.

Unemployment rate
Unemployed as a percentage of the economically active population.
Economically inactive
Economically inactive
People who are neither in employment nor unemployed. This group includes, for example, all those who were looking after a home or retired.
Wanting a job
People not in employment who want a job but are not classed as unemployed because they have either not sought work in the last four weeks or are not available to start work.
Not wanting a job
People who are neither in employment nor unemployed and who do not want a job.
Workless Households
Households
A household is defined as a single person, or a group of people living at the same address who have the address as their only or main residence and either share one main meal a day or share living accommodation (or both). For the purposes of this table, estimates only include those households where at least 1 person is aged 16 to 64.
Workless households
Households where no-one aged 16 or over is in employment. These members may be unemployed or economically inactive. Economically inactive members may be unavailable to work because of family commitments, retirement or study, or unable to work through sickness or disability.
Children
Children refers to all children under 16.
Occupation
Occupations are classified according to the Standard Occupation Classification 2010. Descriptions of the job titles included in each code are available in the SOC manuals.
Qualifications
Qualifications data are only be available from the APS for calendar year periods, for example, Jan to Dec 2005. The variables show the total number of people who are qualified at a particular level and above, so data in this table are not additive. Separate figures for each NVQ level are available in the full Annual Population Survey data set (Query data).

The trade apprenticeships are split 50/50 between NVQ level 2 and 3. This follows ONS policy for presenting qualifications data in publications. Separate counts for trade apprenticeships can be obtained from the full APS data set (Query data).

No qualifications
No formal qualifications held.
Other qualifications
includes foreign qualifications and some professional qualifications.
NVQ 1 equivalent
e.g. fewer than 5 GCSEs at grades A-C, foundation GNVQ, NVQ 1, intermediate 1 national qualification (Scotland) or equivalent.
NVQ 2 equivalent
e.g. 5 or more GCSEs at grades A-C, intermediate GNVQ, NVQ 2, intermediate 2 national qualification (Scotland) or equivalent.
NVQ 3 equivalent
e.g. 2 or more A levels, advanced GNVQ, NVQ 3, 2 or more higher or advanced higher national qualifications (Scotland) or equivalent.
NVQ 4 equivalent and above
e.g. HND, Degree and Higher Degree level qualifications or equivalent.
Earnings by Residence
The figures show the median earnings in pounds for employees living in the area who are on adults rates of pay and whose pay was not affected by absence. Figures for earnings come from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE). The ASHE is based on a 1 per cent sample of employees, information on whose earnings and hours is obtained from employers. The survey does not cover self-employed. Information relates to a pay period in April.

The earnings information collected relates to gross pay before tax, national insurance or other deductions, and excludes payments in kind. It is restricted to earnings relating to the survey pay period and so excludes payments of arrears from another period made during the survey period; any payments due as a result of a pay settlement but not yet paid at the time of the survey will also be excluded.

Out-Of-Work Benefits
Claimant Count (Experimental Statistics)
The Claimant Count is the number of people claiming benefit principally for the reason of being unemployed. This is measured by combining the number of people claiming Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA) and National Insurance credits with the number of people receiving Universal Credit principally for the reason of being unemployed. Claimants declare that they are out of work, capable of, available for and actively seeking work during the week in which the claim is made.

The measure of the number of people receiving Universal Credit principally for the reason of being unemployed is still being developed by the Department for Work and Pensions. Consequently this component of the total Claimant Count does not yet correctly reflect the target population of unemployed claimants and is subject to revisions. For this reason the Claimant Count is currently designated as Experimental Statistics.

The Claimant Count is mostly derived from DWP administrative systems. For various reasons, e.g. a claimant’s National Insurance number is not known, a small number of claims have to be dealt with manually. These clerical claims do not have as much detail as the computerised claims and therefore, whilst part of the claimant count by sex table, cannot be included the age breakdown.

Rates by age

Unemployment benefits normally only apply to people aged 18 years and over. They can only be claimed by 16 and 17 year olds in exceptional circumstances. Consequently the counts for this age group are typically very low.

DWP Working-Age Client Group
From August 2017 DWP discontinued this dataset when they changed the way they publish their benefit statistics. The last period of data is the November 2016 figures published in May 2017.

The number of working-age people who are claiming one or more main DWP benefits. The main benefits are: bereavement benefit, carer’s allowance, disability living allowance, ESA and incapacity benefit, severe disablement allowance, income support, jobseeker’s allowance, and widow’s benefit. The age at which women reach State Pension age is gradually increasing from 60 to 65 between April 2010 and April 2020. Throughout this period, only women below State Pension age are counted as working age benefit claimants.”

The total count is broken down by statistical groups. These categorise each person according to the main reason why they are claiming benefit. Each client is classified to a single group.

Benefits are arranged hierarchically and claimants are assigned to a group according to the top most benefit they receive. Thus a person who is a lone parent and receives Incapacity Benefit would be classified as incapacity benefits. Consequently, the group lone parent will not contain all lone parents as some will be included in the incapacity benefits group and Job seekers groups.

Main out-of-work benefits consists of the groups: job seekers, ESA and incapacity benefits, lone parents and others on income related benefits.

These groups have been chosen to best represent a count of all those benefit recipients who cannot be in full-time employment as part of their condition of entitlement. Those claiming solely Bereavement Benefits or Disability Living Allowance (DLA) are not included as these are not out-of-work or income based benefits. DLA is paid to those needing help with personal care. These people can, and some will, be in full-time employment. If DLA claimants are also in receipt of JSA, IS, ESA or Incapacity Benefits in addition to DLA they will be counted under the relevant statistical group. In addition, we exclude those claiming solely carer’s benefits or claiming carer’s benefits alongside income support, as DWP does not pursue active labour market policies for this group. Carers benefits are paid to those with full time caring responsibilities. The group entitled to Carer’s benefits alongside Income Support (IS) includes around 86,000 claimants and has been stable over time.

This Nomis series is different to that published in the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Labour Market Bulletin. The Nomis series uses DWP Jobseeker’s Allowance numbers, whilst the Labour Market Bulletin uses the Claimant Count, using different methods, coverage and reference periods

Labour DemandLabour demand includes jobs available within the area.

Jobs Density
The level of jobs per resident aged 16-64. For example, a job density of 1.0 would mean that there is one job for every resident aged 16-64.

The total number of jobs is a workplace-based measure and comprises employee jobs, self-employed, government-supported trainees and HM Forces. The number of residents aged 16-64 figures used to calculate jobs densities are based on the relevant mid-year population estimates.

Employee Jobs
The number of jobs held by employees. Employee jobs excludes self-employed, government-supported trainees and HM Forces, so this count will be smaller than the total jobs figure shown in the Jobs density table. The information comes from the Business Register and Employment Survey (BRES) – an employer survey conducted in September of each year. The BRES records a job at the location of an employee’s workplace (rather than at the location of the business’s main office).

Full-time and part-time:
In the BRES, part-time employees are those working for 30 or fewer hours per week.
Note
All figures exclude farm-based agriculture
Earnings by Place of Work
The figures show the median earnings in pounds for employees working in the area who are on adults rates of pay and whose pay was not affected by absence. Figures for earnings come from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE). The ASHE is based on a 1 per cent sample of employees, information on whose earnings and hours is obtained from employers. The survey does not cover self-employed. In 2004 information related to the pay period which included 21 April.

The earnings information collected relates to gross pay before tax, national insurance or other deductions, and excludes payments in kind. It is restricted to earnings relating to the survey pay period and so excludes payments of arrears from another period made during the survey period; any payments due as a result of a pay settlement but not yet paid at the time of the survey will also be excluded.

Annual Civil Service Employment SurveyThe Annual Civil Service Employment Survey (ACSES) is based on a census of civil service departments on 31 March. ACSES counts all home Civil Service employees. It excludes the Northern Ireland Civil Service, other Crown servants and employees of the wider public sector. There are home Civil Service employees based in Northern Ireland and Overseas. Headcount statistics are based on the number of employees with an employment contract who are being paid by the organisation. Employees can be permanent, on a fixed-term contract or employed on a temporary basis. The self-employed, contract workers and agency workers are excluded. Employees not on the payroll and not being paid during the reference period are also excluded, for example, those on unpaid maternity leave, unpaid sick absence and career breaks. Full-time employees are those who are contracted to work 37 hours per week (36 hours per week in London for employees employed prior to 2013. Employees in London substantively promoted since 2013, or who have joined the Civil Service subsequent to this date, are now contracted to work 37 hours per week if on a full-time basis). Part-time employees are those who work less than the normal contracted hours.

Note ACSES data is currenly only available for local authorities in England and Wales.

<!–

Jobcentre plus vacancies
The figures in the tables are based on the number of live unfilled vacancies handled by Jobcentre Plus. These are vacancies actively available to jobseekers on the count date and are derived as a by-product of administrative systems. Users should be aware of the following points when using and interpreting the series:

  • Coverage relates just to vacancies notified to Jobcentre Plus and as such represent a market share of vacancies throughout the whole economy. This proportion varies over time, according to the occupation of the vacancy and industry of the employer, and by local area.
  • The time-series is susceptible to discontinuities arising from changes to vacancy taking and vacancy handling (e.g. 2006 changes to employer follow-up processes).
  • Local area data can throw up spurious figures. For example, Lincoln local authority includes all national vacancies notified by the Ministry of Defence since these are recorded against a single central postcode irrespective of actual location.

For further details see: https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/articles/406.aspx

–>UK Business CountsThe data contained in the table are compiled from an extract taken from the Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR) recording the position of units as at March of the reference year. The IDBR contains information on VAT traders and PAYE employers in a statistical register which provides the basis for the Office for National Statistics to conduct surveys of businesses.

The table presents analysis of businesses at both Enterprise and Local Unit level. An Enterprise is the smallest combination of legal units (generally based on VAT and/or PAYE records) which has a certain degree of autonomy within an Enterprise Group. An individual site (for example a factory or shop) in an enterprise is called a local unit.

The employment information on the IDBR is drawn mainly from the Business Register Employment Survey (BRES). Because this is based on a sample of enterprises, estimates from previous returns and from other ONS surveys have also been used. For the smallest units, either PAYE jobs or employment imputed from VAT turnover is used.

Estimates in the table are rounded to prevent disclosure.

Copyright

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Rebuild the city gates! Proposal for celebration in 2021 of the 550th Anniversary Commemoration of Margaret of Anjou and Gloucester’s contribution to Yorkist success at Battle of Tewkesbury Margaret of Anjou

margaret

1) Margaret of Anjou (French: Marguerite; 23 March 1430 – 25 August 1482) was a fascinating character, much maligned by Shakespeare, but by any measures an extraordinary woman in a time dominated by men. Margaret was the Queen of England by marriage to King Henry VI from 1445 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. Born in the Duchy of Lorraine into the House of Valois-Anjou, Margaret was the second eldest daughter of René, King of Naples, and Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine.
2) She was one of the principal figures in the series of dynastic civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses and at times personally led the Lancastrian faction. Owing to her husband’s frequent bouts of insanity, Margaret ruled the kingdom in his place. It was she who called for a Great Council in May 1455 that excluded the Yorkist faction headed by Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, and this provided the spark that ignited a civil conflict that lasted for more than 30 years, decimated the old nobility of England, and caused the deaths of thousands of men, including her only son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, at the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471.
3) In events leading to the battle of Tewkesbury, the actions of the city of Gloucester in turning her and her troops away at the South Gate are claimed by many to have been decisive in deciding the results of the battle and the war.

Proposal

4) To commemorate the 550th anniversary of the turning away of Margaret of Anjou at South Gate at we are proposing a week-long festival will be held in Gloucester. One key element to this will be the reconstruction of the South Gate and part of the wall on Kimbrose Triangle. This would provide a backdrop and performance space for many of the other activities and provide a valuable link activity area between city centre and docks. The team at Marketing Gloucester are working up a plan with partners including Tewkesbury medieval festival.  We are delighted to confirm that early support has been committed to the infrastructure by Gloucester BID who see the huge benefits of increased visitor numbers through the year. We are very happy to hear from anyone who would like to be involved and envisage that the History Festival in September could be an important part of the celebrations. Currently we have partners involved in the following, or who are investigating:

a) Building of replica South Gate and part of the wall at Kimbrose triangle, with this to also provide performance space to the North Side, and be suitable for other uses during the year, including Gloucester Day

gates

b) Re-enactment celebrating the anniversary in 2021 including a potential march from Gloucester to Tewkesbury. Timing to be around Tewkesbury Medieval Festival second week of July with possible additional events 3rd May 2021
c) Original Play on Margaret of Anjou (possibly outdoors at Kimbrose Triangle)
d) New devoted Margaret of Anjou Website
e) Partnership with the other towns/cities connected with Margaret of Anjou particularly Tewkesbury
f) Series of Talks on Margaret of Anjou (Glos Hist Fest)
g) Medieval Fayre
h) Medieval Banquet at the Cathedral
i) Museum exhibition regarding Margaret of Anjou and Gloucester’s importance in war of the roses (Richard III)
j) Schools education piece/competition
k) Civic Trust walking tours
l) Archaeology TBC Andrew Armstrong
m) Performance of series of William Shakespeare’s 1st Tetralogy of History plays, which include Margaret of Anjou: Henry VI, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Richard III. She is the only character to appear alive in all four plays.
o) Further uses for gate, including morphing for use during Civil War re-enactment and Gloucester Day

Background

5) Battle of Tewkesbury – King Edward realized that the Lancastrians were seeking to cross the River Severn into Wales. The nearest crossing point they could use was at the city of Gloucester. He sent urgent messages to the Governor, Sir Richard Beauchamp, ordering him to bar the gates to Margaret and man the city’s defences. When Margaret arrived on the morning of 3 May, Beauchamp refused her summons to let her army pass, and she realized that there was insufficient time to storm the city before Edward’s army arrived. Instead, her army made another forced march of 10 miles (16 km) to Tewkesbury, attempting to reach the next bridge at Upton-upon-Severn, 7 miles (11 km) further on. Edward meanwhile had marched no less than 31 miles (50 km), passing through Cheltenham (then little more than a village) in the late afternoon. The day was very hot, and both the Lancastrians and Edward’s pursuing army were exhausted. The Lancastrians were forced to abandon some of their artillery, which was captured by Yorkist reinforcements following from Gloucester.
6) At Tewkesbury the tired Lancastrians halted for the night. Most of their army were footmen and unable to continue further without rest, and even the mounted troops were weary. By contrast, King Edward’s army was composed mainly of mounted men, who nevertheless dismounted to fight on foot as most English armies did during this period. Hearing from his “prickers” or mounted scouts of Margaret’s position, Edward drove his army to make another march of 6 miles (9.7 km) from Cheltenham, finally halting 3 miles (4.8 km) from the Lancastrians. The Lancastrians knew they could retreat no further before Edward attacked their rear, and that they would be forced to give battle.
7) Margaret was taken prisoner by the victorious Yorkists after the Lancastrian defeat at Tewkesbury. In 1475, she was ransomed by her cousin, King Louis XI of France. She went to live in France as a poor relation of the French king, and she died there at the age of 52

Depictions in Fiction
8) Margaret is a major character in William Shakespeare’s 1st Tetralogy of History plays. Henry VI, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Richard III. She is the only character to appear alive in all four plays. Shakespeare portrays Margaret as an intelligent, ruthless woman who easily dominates her husband and fiercely vies for power with her enemies. In Henry VI, Part 2 Margaret has an affair with the Duke of Suffolk and mourns his death by carrying around his severed head. In Henry VI, Part 3 she personally stabs the Duke of York on the battlefield (after humiliatingly taunting him) and becomes suicidal when her son Edward is killed in front of her. Despite the fact that Margaret spent the rest of her life outside England after the death of her husband and son, Shakespeare has her return to the court in Richard III. Margaret serves as a Cassandra-like prophetess; in her first appearance she dramatically curses the majority of the nobles for their roles in the downfall of the House of Lancaster. All of her curses come to pass as the noblemen are betrayed and executed by Richard of Gloucester, and each character reflects on her curse before his execution. Shakespeare had famously described Margaret : “How ill-beseeming is it in thy sex/ To triumph like an Amazonian trull/ Upon their woes whom Fortune captivates.”[27]

9) Margaret is the title character of Giacomo Meyerbeer’s 1820 opera Margherita d’Anjou.

10) In the 1963 production by the Royal Shakespeare Company of The Wars of the Roses, broadcast by the BBC in 1965 and 1966, Margaret was played by Peggy Ashcroft. In the second series of The Hollow Crown: The Wars of the Roses, a three-part television adaptation of the Tetralogy first broadcast in 2016, Margaret was portrayed by Sophie Okonedo.
11) Margaret of Anjou has an important role in Bulwer-Lytton’s The Last of the Barons (1843).
12) Margaret of Anjou is the main character in Barnaby Ross’s 1966 novel, The Passionate Queen – Barnaby Ross was a publisher’s house name for historical novels written by various authors, among them Don Tracy, who wrote The Passionate Queen.
13) Margaret of Anjou is the subject of Betty King’s 1974 biographical novel Margaret of Anjou – a sympathetic portrayal.
14) Margaret of Anjou is an important character in Sir Walter Scott’s 1829 novel Anne of Geierstein, where she appears disguised as a beggar following her exile.
15) Margaret of Anjou is the main character in Jean Plaidy’s 1982 novel The Red Rose of Anjou.
16) Margaret of Anjou is the important character in the early parts of Sharon Kay Penman’s 1982 novel The Sunne in Splendour, up until the Battle of Tewkesbury.
17) Margaret of Anjou is the subject of Alan Savage’s 1994 novel Queen of Lions, a portrayal which imagines she had an exceptionally active sex life.
18) Margaret of Anjou is one of the major characters in The Lady of the Rivers by Philippa Gregory (2011), narrated by Jacquetta of Luxembourg.
19) She also appears in The White Queen by Philippa Gregory (2009), narrated by Elizabeth Woodville.
20) She is mentioned in The Red Queen by Philippa Gregory (2010), narrated by Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby.
21) She also appears in The Kingmaker’s Daughter by Philippa Gregory (2012), narrated by Anne Neville.
22) Margaret of Anjou is the main character in Susan Higginbotham’s 2011 novel The Queen of Last Hopes – a sympathetic portrayal.
23) Margaret of Anjou is a major subject in Stormbird, the first book of Conn Iggulden’s trilogy about The Wars of the Roses.
24) She also is the subject of a fictional biography, The Royal Tigress by a fictional character, David Powlett-Jones who is the main subject of To Serve Them All My Days, R.F. Delderfield’s novel of a Welsh schoolmaster at a Devon public school from World War I to the Battle of Britain in the 1940s. Delderfield, in the person of Powlett-Jones, appears to have a very good grasp of Margaret’s life and the Wars of the Roses, and the content and development of the book give us an entertaining sub-plot to the book’s main narrative.
25) In the television series The White Queen (2013), based on Gregory’s The Cousins’ War novels, Margaret of Anjou is portrayed by Veerle Baetens.

Potential partners
26) Tewkesbury Medieval Festival
27) Museum of Gloucester
28) Gloucester City Council
29) Gloucester Heritage Forum
30) Gloucester History Festival
31) Gloucester Music Festival
32) Gloucester BID/ Marketing Gloucester
33) Strike a light
34) Gloucester Culture Trust
35) G15+
36) Gloucester BID
37) Richard III society
38) Others..

Links
39) http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/margaretanjou.htm
40) http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/margaret-robber.htm
41) http://nicolequinnnarrates.blogspot.com/2013/03/the-legend-of-queen-margaret-of-anjou.html
42) http://dangerouswomenproject.org/2016/06/11/margaret-of-anjou/

For enquiries please contact Karen@marketinggloucester.co.uk or Natasha@marketinggloucester.co.uk

Prestigious Water City Music, expanding from London to Gloucester Tall Ships & Adventure Festival, May 25 2019.

Water City Music, Gloucestershire Academy of Music and Marketing Gloucester are joining forces to bring a magical extra dimension to this year’s Gloucester Tall Ships and Adventure Festival.

Visitor numbers to the historic Gloucester Docks reach 200,000 over the weekend (May 25th to 27th) attracting visitors from across the UK and the Water City Music programme will see children and other musical groups perform on three stages around the docks.

Led by Gloucestershire based artistic director Michael Bochmann, Water City Music stages musical events – of assorted size and scale – at striking water-based venues across the UK.   The annual flagship Tower of London Festival each June has, in recent years, involved over 1,800 musicians and 60 schools performing for huge numbers of daily visitors and it is hoped that similar success can now be spread to the Gloucester event.

The Water City Music day will be held on the Saturday of the Bank Holiday weekend (25th) with massed choirs put together from Gloucestershire schools to perform songs on one of the stages whilst smaller performing groups will have 20 to 30 minute slots to entertain the thousands of visitors.  In the run up to the event schools will receive expert guidance from Gloucester choral specialist Vicki Field.

A third stage will be used to showcase the Gloucestershire GAMELAN, an amazing orchestra of Indonesian percussion instruments bringing the music of the rainforest right to the water’s edge of Gloucester’s historic docks; with free workshops and performances taking place throughout the day.

County schools and performing groups are invited to join the event by enquiring directly with admin@wcm.org.uk or via Gloucestershire Academy of Music.

All participants in the Water City Music festival will get free access to the Tall Ships & Adventure event and free access for 1 accompanying adult.  We look forward to seeing you there.

The Water City Music organisation is an entirely self-funding body relying on grants, sponsorship and fundraising to sustain its events and programmes. Every penny we raise goes back into expanding our reach, putting on bigger and better events and more sustainable programmes.  Local businesses are invited to contact the charity (admin@wcm.org.uk) to discuss sponsorship and profile-raising opportunities.

http://watercitymusic.com/

_____________________

Will Kings Quarter deliver?

In May 2015, as plans were being drawn up for Gloucester’s new Transport Hub, I wrote a short piece about the opportunity this development had for setting a benchmark for future developments in the city.
bus
At the time of writing that article there were many cynics who thought that this was just another project that was “jam tomorrow”.  Anyone who sees the completed project just three years later will be delighted by the speed of the conclusion of this project and particularly the fantastic job done by Architects BDP led by Neil Sansum, Kier Construction and all the partners involved, not least GFirst LEP for providing funding and Philip Ardley and the team at Gloucester City Council .  Whatever your political views there is also no doubt that Leader and cabinet member for regeneration Cllr Paul James  led on this project and should be commended for his efforts in the continued regeneration of Gloucester. What particularly has been satisfying is to see how Architects BDP listened closely to those who wanted this building to be grounded in its place and be recognisable as distinctly Gloucester.  In many peoples opinion it is a beautiful modern building that through the use of limestone and a future installation of stained glass will tie it into the city. Now we are in a similar position with Kings Quarter as we were when I wrote the article in 2015.  Once again I have confidence that this regeneration will come to pass, since much of the funding is in place and the City Council now own almost all the plots that need development.  However once again I believe that before the diggers go in it would be well to reflect on what we want from Kings Quarter – something that is just better, or something that is good or even great?  Below are some images from the recent application which demonstrate current thinking on design. 
0_SFR_GLO_KingsSquare171218_05
Some of the questions that are important to consider before these are approved are whether these proposals really ground us in place? Are they distinctly Gloucester?  Do they use materials and reference vernacular idioms that have defined the city for over two thousand years? Are they the sort of designs that are likely to stand the test of time?  Have these designs built upon the excellent work done with the Transport Hub.  Are these current plans really good or great, even inspirational, or are they just better than what is there currently?
0_SFR_GLO_KingsSquare171218_02
Gloucester is not Bracknell, Reading, or Bristol.  We have a fantastic opportunity to show our pride in the place in which we live and work and follow the example of Bath which has taking pride in it’s local heritage and reinvented it for the 21st century. It is timely to consider these plans now as the current application is a hybrid, meaning that the designs are not yet fixed for the outline elements and that the application will take some months to determine therefore there is time for changes to be made to the detailed elements of the design as well(e.g. Kings House and Plot 2 – directly behind the new transport hub).
The politicians and planners of Gloucester have the chance now to build on the success of the Transport Hub and demonstrate a genuine vision for the Kings Quarter and the city of Gloucester, one that is not a watered down, pastiche version of internationalist modernism but one born of Gloucester and one that will make the people of Gloucester prouder still of their home city. Any architect involved in this project should try to get under the skin of the identity of the city and its citizens and aim to present architecture that will truly inspire the next generations, following the spirit of those who design the Cathedral and aiming to design something that is not just of 2019 but buildings that will not date but will  have a timeless quality and still have relevance in 100 or 200 years.
Will Kings Quarter deliver?  I believe it can, but the designs need to evolve for it to deliver the full potential for this important gateway to the city

A chance for #Gloucester! Ideas for a new vernacular architecture.

Developing a new vernacular for the city of Gloucester

For those involved in the regeneration of the Cathedral city of Gloucester there are few, if any who would deny that the city is “on the up”. Economic indicators show that this is a city that is growing at a region beating pace. As a city, Gloucester finally seems to have its ducks in a row regarding the pieces of regeneration that need to be undertaken to complete the incredible transformation that we can see significantly completed at the Quays and Docks. Money has been committed to the development of Blackfriars Quarter, Barbican and Quayside with a start date scheduled for the first ground clearance and the former Prison is ready to be developed. Money has been committed, assets purchased and architects appointed for the bus station in Kings Quarter. Development of an iconic multi-use venue located at Southgate moorings has been muted and if realised would fill the much maligned “missing link” between Gate streets and the redeveloped Quays.

GlooucesterCathedral

All of these are exciting projects behind which there is a head of steam, but maybe now – before we start sending in the excavators – is the time that we should pause and examine exactly what we want to see at these locations and what the city needs in order to fulfil the needs and aspirations of the current population and to overcome the barriers to growth for Gloucester becoming a “complete” city.

Although there can be much debate as to what type of development should be where – residential, hotels, leisure, cultural facilities and so-on the purpose of this article is not to consider the type of development but to discuss whether before we run headlong at our new regeneration projects we should not first try and establish how we want these to look.

Gloucester has been presented with a once in a life time opportunity to define the look and feel of the city. The major redevelopments will be positioned at points in the city where they will make a statement. The question we must ask ourselves is what do we want that statement to be?

My view is that it is now that we should be looking to develop guidelines for a new vernacular architecture for Gloucester – and one that directly speaks to the heart of the residents of the city and will continue to build on what makes this city unique. For too long major developments have been imposed on the city in a watered down homogenous form that at best pays lip service to place.

In developing this new vernacular architecture we need to answer two questions – what are we hoping to achieve by this and what will be its influences and points of reference.

By developing a new vernacular, planners, influencers and visionaries in Gloucester have a chance to help define what Gloucester is both to its citizens and to the wider world. By promoting this new vernacular in iconic keystone developments there is an opportunity to develop the sense of place and civic pride that is needed by every thriving city which aims to grow.

So what should the new vernacular reference? In many cities and towns this might seem a difficult question and possibly even in Gloucester where over the 2000 years of history there have been a wide range of architectural influences and materials. These include buildings constructed from the remains of the Roman and later Anglo-Saxon fortifications, fine timber framed buildings such as The New Inn and 26 Westgate, Regency, and red brick within the industrial dock areas and Victorian and Edwardian suburbs.

Yet alongside of all of these – none of which is peculiarly home grown – in Gloucester there is a piece of architecture that already is defined by and defines the city. This piece of architecture was created by local craftsmen using local materials and using locally developed new forms and techniques which were years ahead of their contemporaries. It is a building that has influenced many other significant buildings in the city’s history and worldwide. This building is the beautiful, iconic Abbey of St Peters otherwise known as Gloucester Cathedral.

This is the building that I believe should be the touchstone for developing the new vernacular for Gloucester. Without being recidivist we should be looking to develop an architectural pallet of materials and design themes that will enable visitors and locals alike to identify the new developments as being uniquely Gloucester. There are three, possibly four influences that I believe any architect seeking to produce civic architecture that truly references Gloucester should refer to. These are as follows.

  • Perpendicular Gothic[1]
  • Large glass windows subdivided geometrically
  • Limestone
  • Fan Vaulting

perpendicular-window

Imagine developments such as the new bus station, Kings Quarter and a beautiful iconic multi-use cultural center on Southgate moorings which whilst refraining from cliché nevertheless reference and reinterpret the soaring and elegant perpendicular gothic arch, large glass windows divided geometrically and reflecting and empahasising colour and utilised the warm cotswold colours the people of Gloucester identify with the building which defines the city. This is the opportunity.

The politicians and planners of Gloucester have the chance now to demonstrate a genuine vision for the city of Gloucester, one that is not a watered down, pastiched version of internationalist modernism but one born of Gloucester and one that will make the people of Gloucester prouder still of their home city. Any architect involved in this project should try to get under the skin of the identity of the city and its citizens and aim to present architectural that will truly inspire the next generations, following the spirit of those who design the Cathedral and aiming to design something that is not just of 2015 but buildings that will not date but will  have a timeless quality and still have relevance in 100 or 200 years.

 

[1] http://www.britainexpress.com/architecture/perpendicular.htm

Background on Tourism Statistics produced for Gloucestershire

Below are some technical data on Sources and data for the Gloucestershire Tourism statistics including definitions
What is GBTS?

The Great Britain Tourism Survey is undertaken by TNS for VisitBritain and is based
on approximately 2,000 face-to-face per week throughout the year as part of TNS’s
RSGB Omnibus survey. It provides basic headline data on the volume and value of
domestic tourism, for England as a whole, for the English regions and for the
counties or unitary authorities.
What is IPS?
The International Passenger Survey is conducted by Office for National Statistics
and is based on face-to-face interviews with a sample of passengers travelling via
the principal airports, sea routes and the Channel Tunnel, together with visitors
crossing the land border into Northern Ireland. Around 0.2% of all travellers are
interviewed, with approximately 55,000 interviews of overseas visitors obtained
throughout the year. IPS provides headline figures, based on the county or unitary
authority, for the volume and value of overseas trips to the UK.
What is GBDVS?
In 2011, VisitEngland, Visit Scotland and Visit Wales commissioned a new survey to measure volume and value of tourism day visits in England. A number of earlier
surveys were conducted to measure this key sector of the economy, most recently in
2005, but it has been difficult to make comparisons over time due to changing
definitions and survey methodologies. In the new survey, interviewing is carried out
weekly, using an online methodology, and an annual sample of over 38,000
interviews with GB adults. The GB Day Visits Survey is an Official Statistic, and is produced in adherence with the Code of Practice for Official Statistics (2009).

What is the England Occupancy Survey?
As part of the EU Directive on Tourism Statistics adopted in 1995, the UK must
report regularly a specified range of statistics to Eurostat, the official statistical office
of the European Community. Included in these statistics are monthly occupancy
rates for UK serviced accommodation. The responsibility for providing this data lies
with the four National Tourist Boards. A sample of establishments are recruited to
the survey and asked to complete a data form each month, giving details of their
nightly room and bed occupancy. The data returned is processed and analysed to
produce monthly occupancy rates for the whole area and for specific types of
accommodation providers, size of establishment, location etc.
What is the ASHE?
The Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE) provides information about the
levels, distribution and make-up of earnings and hours worked for employees in all
industries and occupations. The ASHE is a new survey developed to replace the
New Earnings Survey (NES) from 2004, including improvements to the coverage of
employees, imputation for item non-response and the weighting of earnings
estimates. The ASHE is based on a 1 per cent sample of employees in United Kingdom
What is the Labour Force Survey?
The LFS is a household panel survey of employment, continuous since 1992, with
results produced each quarter. It has a sample of approximately 60,000 households.
The LFS is the government’s largest continuous household survey and participation
in the survey is voluntary. LFS data are weighted to enable population estimates to
be produced. The weighting also attempts to compensate for differential non-response among different subgroups in the population. LFS is designed to provide information on the UK labour market that can be used to develop, manage and evaluate labour market policies. Aspects reported include rates of employment, unemployment and economic activity.
Terms used
What is a day visitor?
A day visitor is defined as someone making a day trip to and from home
for leisure purposes. The report excludes trips undertaken for business or study purposes. This report presents data on those who took trips of at least 3 hours duration on an irregular basis as defined by the GBDVS 2011. These are identified as tourism day
trips by the Departmentof Culture, Media and the Sport.
What is a staying visitor?
A visitor staying away from home for at least one night. Often measured in trips to
overcome the issue of one visitor making two or more trips to an area in a given
period.
What are VFR trips?
VFR trips are those where visiting friends or relatives is the main purpose for making
a trip. While many trips to visit friends and relatives will be accommodated in the
homes of these friends/relatives, some will make use of other forms of accommodation. It should also be noted that other forms of trip, for instance for holiday or business purposes, may stay with friends and relatives rather than in commercial ccommodation.
What is a multiplier?
Additional activity arising as a result of an initial direct input. Two forms of multiplier
are used in the model, namely indirect or supply multipliers, representing the additional economic activity arising from the purchase of supplies and services by businesses in direct receipt of tourism spending; and induced multipliers arising from additional economic activity supported by the expenditure of wages earned by employees in businesses supported directly or indirectly by tourism spending.
What are full time equivalent jobs (FTE’s)?
A FTE is defined as a job involving an input of 37 or more hours work per week for a
full year. For the purposes of the Model, the total number of FTE jobs is the number
of full time jobs that the number of actual jobs equates to. For example, 2 part time
all year round jobs, each covering 18.5 hours per week would equate to 1 FTE job.
What are actual jobs?
This figure gives the actual number of jobs, regardless of the amount of hours
worked or the seasonality of the employment. For example, 3 part time jobs and 2
full time jobs would equal 5 actual jobs. Many jobs are seasonal or part-time in
nature in the tourism sector, so an adjustment is made to calculate the actual
number of jobs from the number of FTEs. The adjustment is based on the findings of
surveys of tourism related businesses, and national employment surveys.
What are direct jobs
For the purposes of this model jobs have been categorised as direct, indirect or
induced. Direct jobs are those in businesses in receipt of visitor spending. For
example, jobs supported by visitor spending at a hotel would be direct jobs.
What are indirect jobs?
Indirect employment arises as a result of expenditure by businesses in direct receipt
of visitor expenditure on the purchase of goods and services for their businesses.
For example, some of the employment at a business supplying food and drink may
be supported through the supplies that the business sells to hotels (or any other
business in direct receipt of visitor expenditure).
What are induced jobs?
Induced jobs are those that are supported by the spending of wages by employees
in direct and indirect jobs. Such spending will be spread across a wide range of
service sectors.
What are total jobs?
Total jobs include those in tourism related businesses supported by tourist spending
and those indirectly arising or induced by spending across the service sector in
suppliers of goods and services.
Direct jobs + indirect jobs+ induced jobs = Total jobs
What is ‘other tourism spend’?
Apart from expenditure associated with the individual trips, some
forms of activity also involve ongoing expenditure on accommodation, for instance second home or boat maintenance, or result in additional spending by non-
visitors, for example friends and relatives with whom the tourist is staying. These other areas of expenditure are categorized as ‘other tourism spend’.

The Mathematical model

How does the model work?

The Cambridge Model is a computer-based model developed to calculate estimates
of the volume, value and economic impact of tourism on a County or District basis.
It draws on the combined experience of PA Cambridge Economic Consultants Ltd,
Geoff Broom Associates and the Regional Tourist Boards and utilises a standard
methodology capable of application throughout the UK. It therefore offers the potential for direct comparisons with similar destinations throughout the country. The approach was the subject of independent validation (R.Vaughan, Bournemouth University) in December 1994. The Model was judged robust and the margins of error acceptable and in line with other modelling techniques.
What are the model’s limitations?
The Model in its basic form relies on using information from a range of sources,
outlined above. The methodology and accuracy of these sources varies, and
therefore the estimates can only be regarded as indicative of the scale and importance of visitor activity in the local area. Thus the Model cannot take account
of any leakage of expenditure in and out of the local area from tourists taking day
trips in or out of the area in which they are staying. While it is assumed that these
may broadly balance each other in many areas, there will be an underestimate in
relation to overseas day visits from holiday accommodation in London to locations
receiving significant numbers from that source. Similarly, there is no information in
the 2012 Great Britain Day Visits survey with regard to business day trips. As with all
models, the outputs need to be viewed in the context of local information and
knowledge. Because of the data sources and modelling process, there will be a
potentially large margin of error associated with individual figures,
with small numbers being particularly prone to such errors. Therefore the outputs should be taken as indicative rather than definitive.