Preparing for Full Fibre, Scoping Study commissioned for Gloucestershire Joint Core Strategy Area

imagesThe Fastershire project is seeking the services of a suitably qualified consultant to help crystallise an understanding of the need, demand, opportunity, and potential for pervasive full fibre connectivity within the urban localities of Gloucestershire. The study will need to identify the needs of and available infrastructure assets owned by public sector partners including local councils, the NHS and emergency services as well as the education sector. Additionally it will need to investigate and assess the appetite of various private sector organisations to leverage the demand and assets of the public sector to generate full fibre connectivity more widely. In the first instance to key business parks, regeneration zones, GPs Surgeries and student accommodation but potentially further providing all pervasive residential and business access to full fibre access across the Study Area.

Want to know the answers to the important questions? Friday is the opportunity

Gloucestershire Chamber of Commerce Networking Breakfast – 1st June 2018

Mercure Gloucester Bowden Hall will play host to the next Gloucestershire Chamber of Commerce networking breakfast on Friday 1st June 2018.

Hosted by former editor of The Gloucester Citizen, Ian Mean, the breakfast will bring together Gloucestershire businesses large and small; what’s more it’s open to both members and non-members of Gloucestershire Chamber, so you’ll always find new connections!

In addition to unrivalled networking opportunities, the breakfast will feature keynotes speeches by:

  • Sir Henry Elwes, former Lord Lieutenant of Gloucestershire;
  • Richard Graham, MP for Gloucester;
  • Mark Hawthorne, Leader of Gloucestershire County Council; and
  • Stephen Marston, Vice Chancellor of the University of Gloucestershire.


7.30 am – arrival, tea, coffee and networking

8.00 am – welcome followed by presentations

8.30 am – breakfast served

9.30 am – event closes


Places are limited – you can secure yours by registering online here.

Opportunity to hear about future for Gloucestershire June 1st with Sir Henry Elwes, Richard Graham, MP for Gloucester, Mark Hawthorne, Leader of Gloucestershire County Council, and Stephen Marston, Vice Chancellor of the University of Gloucestershire


Gloucestershire Chamber of Commerce Networking Breakfast – 1st June 2018

Mercure Gloucester Bowden Hall will play host to the next Gloucestershire Chamber of Commerce networking breakfast on Friday 1st June 2018.

Hosted by former editor of The Gloucester Citizen, Ian Mean, the breakfast will bring together Gloucestershire businesses large and small; what’s more it’s open to both members and non-members of Gloucestershire Chamber, so you’ll always find new connections!

In addition to unrivalled networking opportunities, the breakfast will feature keynotes speeches by:

  • Sir Henry Elwes, former Lord Lieutenant of Gloucestershire;
  • Richard Graham, MP for Gloucester;
  • Mark Hawthorne, Leader of Gloucestershire County Council; and
  • Stephen Marston, Vice Chancellor of the University of Gloucestershire.



7.30 am – arrival, tea, coffee and networking

8.00 am – welcome followed by presentations

8.30 am – breakfast served

9.30 am – event closes


Places are limited – you can secure yours by registering online here

Gloucester to hold big screen street party for Royal Wedding (and the FA Cup Final)

insider-harry-meghanWell-wishers in Gloucester are invited to attend a Royal Wedding street party in King’s Square in the city centre to celebrate the marriage of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle on Saturday 19 May. The ceremony will beamed live on to a big screen for members of the public to enjoy.  

Benches will be laid out in Kings Square for people to bring a picnic and enjoy the family friendly atmosphere. It’s also a great opportunity to support local cafes and bars in Kings Square who will be serving food and drink for people to enjoy on this historic occasion. People are also free to bring along their own seating. There will be free children’s activities, face painting, giant inflatable games including ‘human fussball’, and lots more. 

After the Royal Wedding, the big screen will stay in operation for a live broadcast of the FA Cup Final featuring Chelsea versus Manchester United. The big screen and street party has been organised by Gloucester Business Improvement District (Gloucester BID) in partnership with Gloucester City Council and Marketing Gloucester. 

Jason Smith, chief executive of Marketing Gloucester, said: “This is a great opportunity for the local community to come together and celebrate occasions of national importance such as a royal wedding. We hope that the people of Gloucester will have fun watching it on the big screen among other people and turn Kings Square into a right royal street party among the flags and bunting.” 

The big screen coverage of the Royal Wedding begins at 11am until 2pm. It will be followed by the build up to the FA Cup Final with the big match kicking off at 5.15pm.


For more information, contact




Notes for Editors


About Gloucester BID

Gloucester Business Improvement District is made up of 576 businesses in the city centre of Gloucester who voted in July 2017 to invest approximately £2.5 million back into the city.


City celebrates the life of Aethelflaed, Gloucester’s warrior queen

1426072349thefldGloucester will celebrate the life of Aethelflaed on 9 – 12 June 2018 thanks to joint Great Place funding from the Heritage Lottery and Arts Council, Gloucester City Council and Gloucester Business Improvement District; with events organised by Marketing Gloucester, Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester Civic Trust, Gloucester Culture Trust, Gloucester History Festival and the Museum of Gloucester.

Tuesday 12 June 2018 marks the 1100th anniversary of the death of Aethelflaed, one of the most pivotal women in English history, who ruled from and was buried in Gloucester. A fascinating and interactive programme of events along with a website has been launched to celebrate her life and achievements that had a profound impact on not only Gloucester but all across England. Exclusive talks BBC historians and regulars at the Gloucester History Festival, Dr Janina Ramirez and Tom Holland, and probably most excitingly a Saxon-inspired funeral procession through the ancient streets that she laid out, are among the undoubted highlights for visitors and history buffs this June.

As the ruler of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia, she laid the foundations of the England we know today. Gloucester’s connection to Aethelflaed is indeed a strong one as she refortified the former Roman settlement and defended it from the Vikings, she ruled from the Anglo Saxon Palace in Kingsholm, She built St Oswald’s Priory to house the sacred relics of one of England’s most devoutly Christian kings and she was buried beneath the same building.

There will be an Anglo-Saxon encampment at St Oswald’s Priory where members of the public will have the chance see what life was like in the tenth century and also take part in an archaeological study. The encampment will host specially commissioned music, drama and spoken word performances inspired by Aethelflaed. Members of the public can enjoy free Saxon Tours of Gloucester to help set the scene and a special exhibition will be held at the Museum of Gloucester over the summer. Gloucester Cathedral will hold a special Evensong dedicated to Aethelflaed on the actual anniversary, Tuesday 12 June.

Jason Smith, Chief Executive of Marketing Gloucester commented “After over four years of promoting the knowledge of one of the most important women in English History it is a real delight for us to see so many people and organisations involved in commemorating her achievements.  We are sure that the events planned will be memorable for all involved”

Nick Brookes, chair of Gloucester Business Improvement District, said: “Gloucester owes a great debt to Lady Aethelflaed. After the Romans, Aethelflaed played a hugely important role in laying the foundations of the Gloucester we see today. We hope that the public will join us in celebrating her life and achievements.”


The Programme is as follows:


Friday 8 June to Sunday 10 June – Living History at St Oswald’s Priory


Saturday 9 June – Saxon Funeral Procession (12pm from Gloucester Docks)


Saturday 9 to Sunday 10 June – Aethelflaed Commissioned Pieces

  • Spaces – George Moorey
  • Spaniel In The Works presents Ballad of Aethelflaed
  • Founding Mother on a Chessboard of Kings – Grove and JPDL
  • Interactive Storytelling – Shirley Halse


Sunday 10 June – Blackfriars Talks

  • Aethelflaed And Gloucester: The Golden Minster – Carolyn Heighway And Michael Hare
  • Women Warlords and Warrior Queens – Janina Ramirez
  • Aethelflaed: England’s Founding Mother – Tom Holland


The entire programme of events can be found at

For more information please contact

Event organisers invited to promote in this year’s Gloucester Summer of Music, Arts and Culture brochure

As Gloucester looks forward to another event-filled summer celebrating the city’s vibrant culture and musical scene, Marketing Gloucester invites event organisers to be included in this year’s SoMAC brochure.

Gloucester’s Summer of Music, Arts and Culture is the annual festival running throughout July and August, bringing together established events including the Gloucester Carnival, the Gloucester Rhythm & Blues Festival and Gloucester Goes Retro alongside newer events such as WSP Solicitors Art In The City and the Gloucester Classical Music Festival.

Marketing Gloucester will also promote other summer cultural events in Gloucester free of charge. Last year the Museum of Gloucester, Gloucester Cathedral, St Mary de Crypt Church, Gloucester Guildhall, King’s Theatre, Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust, the Gloucester 10K, and Gloucester Quays benefitted from the additional exposure as the brochure, banners, PR and social media reached an audience of more than 1.5 million over the summermonths.

If you are an event organiser and you think your event or festival would fit in with Gloucester’s Summer of Music, Arts and Culture and would benefit from being a part of the overall brand, contact Marketing Gloucester on with your event details byWednesday 9 May 2018.

Gloucester CAMRA Beer & Cider Festival returns 27 – 28 April

The 6th Gloucester CAMRA Beer & Cider Festival is taking place on 27-28 April and will once again be hosted in the historic Blackfriars Priory, off Southgate Street in Gloucester. We will have around 100 ales and 30 ciders, plus a selection of wine and prosecco. The magnificent Blackfriars building proves a perfect backdrop for the festival with a variety of rooms, including quiet rooms and the priory’s beautiful South Range, plus the (hopefully!) sunny courtyard. The cavernous main hall is ideal for keeping the beers and ciders at the perfect temperature.

Our 100 beers once again come from across the country – from as far Alexandria in Scotland to the north and Penzance in Cornwall to the South. We also have a wide range of local beers from around Gloucester, with the closest coming from Gloucester Brewery and the Brewhouse and Kitchen, just yards from the venue in Gloucester Docks, and the newest being from Clavell & Hind, recently opened at Birdlip.

For the enthusiasts we have a wide range of styles from bitter and IPAs to blonde, golden, pale and red ales. We’ve even got a green one. We’ve got porters, stouts and, for CAMRA’s ‘Mild Month’, a good selection of milds. We’ve got wheat beer, lager and, for the truly adventurous, a rhubarb and hibiscus Grisette. We’ve also sourced beers from microbreweries around the country that you’re unlikely to find in your local.

The festival is not just for beer lovers, we also have an equally interesting mix of ciders and perries. Many come from traditional cider areas around Gloucestershire, Herefordshire and Somerset, but we also have some from Wales and Nottinghamshire. As well as the traditional sweet medium and dry, we have ciders made with sloeberries, oranges, blackcurrant, lemon & lime, strawberry, garlic & chilli, elderflower and rhubarb.

There is also wine and prosecco available and, as if all of that isn’t enough, we will once again have our popular selection of Gloucestershire cheeses, including varieties from  Charles Martel, Smarts, Crumps and Woefuldane. There will also be hot food available throughout the festival.

The festival isn’t just for die-hard beer and cider lovers. Being in the centre of town it attracts a wide range of customers of all ages and interests to come and have a fun, relaxing time. Of course Gloucester Rugby are playing at home to Bath on the Saturday, so we anticipate a fair few cherry and white shirts about the festival before and after the match as well, with the away supporters being equally welcome. We have beers from both Gloucester and Bath, so the friendly rivalry can continue!

There is entertainment on throughout the festival with a mix of bands and solo artists from around the county, including the ever-popular Tewkesbury Town Band on Saturday afternoon and some popular sing-along covers bands to bring the festival to a close each day. Each year we support a charity at the festival and our chosen charity this year is the James Hopkins Trust.

Entry price is just £6 – the same as last year – with tickets available on the door only. CAMRA members get a free pint with members card. People can join at the festival if they wish.


For more information visit


Accessible tourism entrepreneur helps make a difference at The Orchard Trust

Following the launch of his new Review It With Drewitt guide, Christian Drewitt is building up a comprehensive account of venues, not only in the City of Gloucester, but also the surrounding areas. One Forest of Dean business in particular has seen the value of working closely with Review It With Drewitt. Phill Hucks from the Orchard Trust Day Centre in Lydbrook was pleasantly surprised to realise that seeing his day centre through Christian’s eyes, there was so much more could be done to improve the accessibility of the site.

Phill Hucks, Project Manager at The Orchard Trust, said: “Christian knows far better than I ever will how easy or difficult it is to use our services and that is why we wanted him to give us feedback which we could use to improve our accessibility. If I were a potential customer I would be happier trusting the advice of someone who experiences this all the time and so the review on his website will be a powerful marketing tool to enable us to reach exactly the clients we are seeking to provide a service for.”

Christian Drewitt said: “I visited The Orchard Trust in Lydbrook in January and was pleased to find such a great venue with a variety of activities for anyone with a disability to enjoy for a day out. The centre is on a hillside, a little tricky to find but with good directions well worth a visit with so much to do. My main concerns were some tight corners for wheelchairs, only manual doors throughout and a few changes needing to be made in the toilets to enable independence as much as possible. My suggestions were received very positively by Project Manager Phill Hucks and we look forward to reviewing the centre again in the future to keep the website up to date.”

The Review It With Drewitt website which details accessibility of businesses for wheelchairs and the many varied disabilities of which 20% of the UK population are affected. Information ranging from door specifications such as width, automatic opener or manual, ramps, steps or level entrances, menus with large print or whether staff are happy to take time to explain a menu to someone who is visually impaired, music volume and general restaurant background noise, information regarding toilet facilities and many other details to ensure guests are making an informed decision when choosing a venue.

Christian has visited recreational venues, including restaurants, sports centres and Kingsholm Stadium, the home of Gloucester Rugby, pubs, museums, farm parks, cinemas, parks, public spaces and retail developments. Each venue will be assessed and advised on improvements if necessary and then revisited to review any changes. Each venue on the website will have a basic 1 to 5 star rating free of charge and, if subscribing with a small annual fee, businesses can provide more detailed information and photographs. Christian hopes this will make it an easier experience when planning a day out.

Find out more by visiting the




Notes for Editors


Images embedded in Word Document.

For further information, images or to request interviews contact



About Review It With Drewitt


Our mission is to enable access to public places for ALL people with any form of disability. Our experience has disabled members of society has shown that many simple everyday tasks relating to travel and getting out and about are so much easier for the able-bodied than those with disabilities. We want to change this and make it the same for everyone.



LLanthony Priory and St Mary de Crypt giving FREE hard hard tours this weekend only.


Go behind the scenes this Residents’ Weekend with free hard hat tours of Gloucester’s most exciting restoration projects

Members of the public are in for a treat this Residents’ Weekend (Friday 6 to Sunday 8 April) with exclusive free hard hat tours of some of Gloucester’s multi-million pound restorations. Llanthony Secunda Priory with £3.2 million of Heritage Lottery funding and St. Mary de Crypt also receiving £2 million towards their restoration. Residents’ Weekend also gives people who live, work or study in Gloucester the opportunity to try something new with big savings at shops, restaurants, attractions and leisure facilities.

Llanthony Secunda Priory is a former Augustinian priory founded in 1136 and is currently undertaking extensive conservation work. Witness the amazing progress that has been made over the last few years in restoring some of the building’s key features such as the Medieval Range’s newly repaired timber frame. This will be the last public tour before the priory reopens later this summer and a rare chance to witness the work involved in restoring a heritage site. The tour takes place on Friday 6th April at 11am.

Another site undergoing an exciting restoration is St. Mary de Crypt Church and the Old Crypt Schoolroom in Southgate Street. St Mary de Crypt is a fine late 15th Century church situated in the centre of Gloucester. Adjacent to this is one of the few remaining Tudor schoolrooms in the country. There are two medieval wall paintings in the chancel, one of which depicts the Adoration of the Magi. The tours take place on Saturday 7th April at 10am and 11am and are free for Residents’ Weekend making it the perfect time to explore of city’s architectural and historical gems.


Credit Gloucestershire Live

Gloucester Civic Trust is also running many free tours all over the city on Saturday 7th April. Some of the tours and talks on offer are; Roman Times Tour, The Faces of Gloucester Talk, Beatrix Potter Tour, Children’s Tour and many more. A particularly exciting one for this year’s Residents’ Weekend is the Saxon Tour which would include a look at the influence of Aetheflaed in Gloucester’s history. This year is the 1100th anniversary of the death of Aethelfaed and the city will be marking the occasion with a number of activities and events between the 7th and 10th June (more details at The tours are a fantastic opportunity to learn more about the Saxon queen ahead of the celebrations this summer.

Ben Hau, Head of Marketing at Marketing Gloucester, said: “This is a great chance to feel like a tourist in your own city and enjoy a sneak peak at some of Gloucester’s many historical buildings – all free of charge. The annual Residents’ Weekend has been running for six years now and is a wonderful showcase for the attractions and businesses on our doorstep.”


Booking is essential:

Llanthony Secunda Priory tour – contact Tourist Information Centre on 01452 396572

St Mary de Crypt tour – contact or call 01452 385070

Gloucester Civic Trust tour – contact Tourist Information Centre on 01452 396572


See all the offers for Residents’ Weekend at

200 things that determine the health of the high street. Note number 6 in the list #WDYT

The following is an extract from MMU – all rigts acknowledged – .

Note this report is from 2014, it would be interesting to see where e-commerce would be if this exercise was completed today, and also if Supermarket impact would be so highly ranked.  The first number following each listing is Influence ranking e.g. 4.67 for Footfall



Influence Factor Definition/interpretation used in study
Example study/studies Influence Hierarchy
Number of pedestrians counted over a specific time period, in a specific location
Warnaby and Yip, 2005 4.67 3.33
Centre accessible by a variety of transport modes (walking, bike, car, bus etc.)
Brockman, 2008; Clark, 2006 4.57 2.67
3.Retailer representation
Types of retailers in centre (goods/services, independents/multiples etc.)
Wrigley and Dolega, 2011 4.57 3.29
4.Construction of OOT centre
The construction of out-of-town retail parks or malls Guy, 1998a 4.52 2.62
The ability to reach, browse, and shop in a centre easily and without much effort
Leo and Philippe, 2010 4.48 3.02
Refers to the provision of vision and strategy for the High Street/centre
Tomalin and Pal, 1994 4.43 3.62
7.Opening hours
What hours does the town centre, high street, shopping centre, retail park, etc. open? Hart et al., 2013 4.43 3.76
8.Shopping hours What hours do the shops in the centre open? Hart et al., 2013 4.40 3.43 9.Place attractiveness Links to the overall attractiveness of an urban place and its incentives for visiting it e.g. shopping Teller and Elms, 2012 4.38 3.05
10.Retailer offer
Retailer representation, large/small, specialist/generalist, high service/no-frills Brown, 1987 4.38 3.50
11. Supermarket impact
The impact of supermarket development on small retailers and the High Street
Clulow and Reimers, 2009 4.38 2.62
Refers to the general state of production and supply and supply of money in the country
De Magalhaes, 2012 4.36 2.05
13.Centre size
Size of centre as a measure of overall drawing power Yuo et al., 2003 4.35 1.81
14.Area development strategies
Ways of redeveloping existing retail centres – e.g. pedestrianisation, new shopping centre etc.
Karrholm et al., 2014 4.33 3.24
15.E-Retail The sale of goods and services through the Internet
Weltevreden, 2007 4.33 2.29
16.Range/quality of goods
Range (wide vs. narrow) of retail goods on the High Street and the overall or perceived quality of them Hart et al., 2013 4.33 3.29
Various stakeholders from different sectors working together for physical, commercial and general improvement of the High Street/Centre
Hardill et al., 2012 4.30 3.48
18.Public transport
Range of fixed route modes of public transportation to and from the High Street
May et al, 2012; De Nisco, 2013 4.30 2.90
The ability of a centre to attract customers from a catchment area. Dennis et al, 2003 4.29 3.05
20.Centre management
Control, coordination, guidance of a centre’s activities and of its tenants/retailers Teller, 2008 4.29 3.57
Total amount of retail sales made in a certain period (specific store or all High Street stores, shopping centre revenue, etc.)
Tomalin and Pal, 1994 4.29 3.14

Refers to the number and quality of connection points between the built-up fabric in the High Street/Centre Nase et al., 2013 4.28 3.10
23.Location Spatial positioning of the centre
Coelho and Wilson, 1976 4.26 1.14 24.Walkability Friendliness of an area to walking Frank et al, 2006 4.25 3.43
25.Service quality
Overall impression of the level of service from centre.
DeNisco and Warnaby, 2013 4.24 3.67 26.Retail rents The cost of renting retail space (usually by m2) Yuo et al, 2003 4.24 2.62
27.Tenant variety Range of goods/services and range of fascias
Teller and Elms, 2012 4.24 3.19
28.Vacancy rates
Unoccupied/non-rented rental units, expressed as a percentage of the number of shops in the town
Wrigley & Dolega, 2011 4.24 3.05
29.Transport route
All public transport routes (railway tracks, bus lanes, tram lanes, cycle routes, etc.) to the centre
Pantano et al., 2010 4.23 2.48
30.Barriers to Entry
Refers to obstacles that make it difficult for interested retailers to enter the centre
Clarke, Bennison, Guy, 1994 4.22 2.95
Owners of retail, commercial, and other types of property
Roberts et al., 2010 4.22 2.95
32.Retail Planning Policy
National policy, principles and guidelines for town centres that local councils are encouraged to comply with
Cheshire, Hilber, Kaplanis, 2011 4.21 2.10
33.Business Rates
Local tax based on commercial premise’s rateable value Singleton, 2014 4.19 2.14
34.Customer/ catchment views and behaviour (inc. patronage)
The perceptions of the centre held by customers/catchment and use of the centre by customers/catchment
Powe and Hart, 2008; Oppewal et al, 2007 4.19 2.95
35.Internet/ Online Shopping
The ability to browse, compare and shop goods and services via the Internet rather than going to the actual store
Weltevreden, 2007 4.19 2.24
36.Non-retail offer
Total amount of units that are not considered as part of a shopping trip and usually augment it (hair salon, banking, amusements, recreational spaces, etc.)
Teller and Schnedlitz, 2012 4.19 3.29
37.Prosperity of town
Links to the financial flourishing of a town’s citizens or the town overall.
Wrigley et al., 2009 4.19 2.14
38.Range/quality of shops
Range (wide vs. narrow) of retail shops on the High Street and the overall or perceived quality of them Hart et al., 2013 4.19 3.29
39.Shopping centre management
How the physical space is managed in order to attract retail traffic to shopping centre tenants
Roberts et al., 2010 4.18 3.57
40.Retail flexibility
Degree of adaptation to change type or style of retailing activities
Findlay and Sparks., 2010 4.18 3.19
41.Distance to centre
Amount of linear space between the consumer and the city centre Nase et al., 2013 4.17 1.50
A centre’s/ High Street’s funding from inward/outward investment, public or private Peel, 2003 4.16 2.62

43.Car-parking The number or availability of parking spaces
Borgers and Timmermans, 1998 4.14 3.71
44.Catchment size
Whether a catchment area of a centre is large or small
Hardill et al., 2012 4.14 1.76
45.Comparison/ convenience
The amount of comparison shopping opportunities compared to convenience (usually in percentage terms)
Reimers and Clulow, 2004 4.14 3.00
46.Consumer trends
Habits or behaviours currently prevalent among consumers of goods or services. Auport, 2005 4.14 2.00
47.Retail choice
Links to everyday consumer patterns and how they alternate and influence retail offer Clarke et al., 2004 4.14 2.81
48.Retail diversity
A mix of multiples and independents, range of goods, a strong anchor.
Findlay and Sparks, 2009 4.14 3.24
49.Linked trips
Consumers’ propensity to visit other stores after fulfilling their main shopping need (e.g. grocery shopping)
Thomas and Bromley, 2003 4.13 3.29
50.Anchor stores
Presence of anchor stores – which give locations their basic character and signify importance Thorpe, 1968 4.10 3.48
Anything that brings people into the centre and is not a part of its fixed retail offer (e.g. Christmas markets, events, museums, etc.) Peel, 2003 4.10 3.76
52. Availability of alternative formats
Department stores, speciality stores, discount stores. Linked to cross-shopping and retail offer.
Morganosky, 1997 4.10 3.19
53.Catchment income Income profile of catchment
Shields and Deller, 1998 4.10 2.29
54.Catchment view/behaviour
Shopping behaviour, preferences and intentions of catchment
Clulow and Reimers, 2009 4.10 2.24
55.Centre image
Merchandising, accessibility, service and atmospherics. Adapted from shopping centre image.
Sit, Merrilees and Birch, 2003 4.10 3.71
The amount of people in the catchment area that have got jobs Biddulph, 2011 4.10 2.10
57.Evening economy
All economic activity taking place in the evening after many people finish daytime employment, such as eating and drinking, entertainment, and nightlife Biddulph, 2011 4.10 3.57
58. Monofunctional vs multifunctional
Centres used only for retail use (monofunctional) or for other uses as well, e.g. office use (multifunctional)
Irazabal and Chakravarty, 2007 4.10 3.19
59. Pedestrianisation (flow, routes, access)
The provision and type of pedestrian space (streets, open malls, ‘skywalks’ etc.)
Cui, Allan and Lin, 2013 4.10 3.38
60.Place management
A philosophy of how to improve towns and cities through more flexible and inclusive management
Coca-Stefaniak et el., 2009 4.10 3.43
The strategic management of land and buildings for economic and social benefits Guy, 1998 4.10 2.43

62.Planning Blight
Reduction of economic activity or property values in a particular area resulting from expected development or restriction of development
Imrie and Thomas, 1997 4.10 2.81
63.Retail innovation
Representation of new forms of retailing (e.g. click and collect) Gibbs, 1987 4.10 2.71
64.Retail spend The amount of money spent during a shopping trip
Dennis et al., 2002 4.10 3.10
65.Tenant mix Range of goods/services and range of fascias
Teller and Elms, 2012 4.10 3.33
66.Town Centre Management
Decision of town to use town centre management to coordinate resources and activity
Pal and Sanders, 1997 4.10 3.62
67.Visitor satisfaction
Global attitude gained by visiting the high street, a mental process
Leo and Philippe, 2010 4.10 3.62
68.Visual appearance
Includes building appearance, lightning, cleanliness, is the centre appealing to people? Hart et al, 2013 4.10 3.81
69.Location of employment
Refers to whether employers operate in, nearby, or out of the High Street/City Centre
Powe and Hart, 2008 4.09 2.62
70. Crossshopping
Visiting more than one store when visiting a retail centre
Bodkin and Lord, 1997 4.05 3.38 71.Population All the inhabitants at a particular place Hall, 2011 4.05 1.69
Integration between public and private high street stakeholders amongst a variety of public, private and community interests
Williams, 1999; Peel, 2003 4.02 3.48
73.Property ownership
Type of ownership of retail properties in the high street (sole owner, tenant, landlord, etc.)
De Magalhaes, 2012 4.00 2.86
The overall impact of the economic downturn on the high street
De Magalhaes, 2012 4.00 2.19
A centre KPI measuring perceptions or actual crime including shoplifting
Jones, 1990; Hogg et al, 2004 4.00 3.14
76.Size/Type of town
Small Town, Market Town, Rural Town, Metropolitan, etc. Carruthers, 1967 4.00 1.43
77.Household expenditures
The sum of household consumption expenditure and non-consumption expenditures Thorpe, 1968 3.95 2.19
Strengthening economic linkages, development attracting commercial investment and consumers Smith, 2004 3.95 2.90
79.Cleanliness Look of centre, tidiness
Bennison and Davies, 1980 3.90 3.86
80.Consumer Choice Consumer consumption expenditure preferences Clarke et al., 2004 3.90 2.48
81. Familiarity
How comfortable people feel in the city centre/High Street
Leo and Philippe, 2010 3.90 3.48
82. Leisure offer
Facilities that offer activities which are associated with pleasure, enjoyment, and free time in a centre Howard, 2007 3.90 3.40
83.Stakeholder power
Links to the degree of influence on decision-making by various High Street stakeholder groups
Pal and Sanders, 1997 3.90 3.05
84.Top 25 retailers
Links to the volatility of the covenant strength risk ratings of the top 25 retailers
Hutchison et al., 2008 3.90 2.48
85.Assortments The breadth and depth of merchandise Teller, 2008 3.88 3.71

The degree of change and adaptability of a centre’s built environment and services in order to meet local conditions, trends, and consumer needs
Roberts et al., 2010 3.86 3.14
87.Population density Measurement of population in a catchment area Hall, 2011 3.85 1.74 88.Catchment age Age profile of catchment Shields and Deller, 1998 3.81 2.19
89.Amenities Facilities such as toilets, places to sit and rest etc. Sit et al, 2003 3.81 3.76
Centres are accessible without a car and consumers can fulfil needs without travelling to another centre
Rotem-Mindali, 2012 3.81 2.86
91. Mobility
How freely and easily can people move to, from and in the high street/shopping centre
Rotem-Mindali, 2012 3.81 2.71
92.Mode of transport
How do customers come to the High Street (bus, car, foot, tram, metro, bicycle, etc.)
Timmermans et al., 1992 3.81 2.57
Physical layout of centre, store location, external appearance (fascias, etc.) Dawson, 1988 3.81 2.86
94.Community leadership
Used here to describe Local Authorities leadership role with communities
Kures and Ryan, 2012 3.80 3.62
95. Chain vs independent
Number of multiples stores and independent stores in the retail mix of a centre/High Street
Borgers and Vosters, 2011 3.76 3.29
96. Construction of new shopping centre (in town )
Refers to the construction of new shopping centres and their effects in inner city areas
Timmermans et al., 1992 3.76 2.90
97. Economic base
Total number of businesses that generate employment in a community or a geographical area.
Shields and Deller, 1998 3.76 1.86
98.General facilities
Facilities that contribute to a retail centre’s/High Street’s convenience Teller, 2008 3.76 3.57
99.Lease lengths
Average time of lease agreements between retailers and landlords for use of retail property Nase et al., 2013 3.76 2.71
Developments that include not only retail activities, but also offices and even housing ones Balsas, 2008 3.76 3.24
101.Recreational areas/facilities/ activities
Areas to relax or simply spend time in and, therefore, satisfy social needs
Teller and Reutterer, 2008 3.76 3.52
102.Retail centre preference
Type of centre that consumers are choosing based on attitudinal criteria
Clulow and Reimers, 2009 3.76 2.43
103.Tourist/ visitor attractions
All place attractions that are associated with spending free time, sightseeing, relaxation, leisure, etc.
De Nisco and Napolitano, 2006 3.76 3.00
104. Entertainment
All activities that can provide enjoyment and amusement to consumers Teller et al., 2008 3.75 3.71
Interaction between High Street stakeholders for assistance and support
De Magalhaes, 2012 3.75 3.81
106. Retail change
Any change in regulations, infrastructure, technology, consumer behaviour, etc. that influences and alternates the retail offer on the High Street and beyond
Clarke, Bennison and Guy, 1994; Pioch and Byrom , 2004 3.75 2.52

Refers to the activities of retailers to gain more profit/sales than others in a particular area
Clarke, Bennison, Guy, 1994 3.72 3.05
108. Rents Turnover
Financial incentive given to tenants in which the rent is calculated by reference to the turnover generated by the tenant
Kirkup and Rafiq, 1994 3.72 3.10
A global assessment of a retail centre, made up of a number of factors such as manoeuvrability, orientation and sales personnel
Teller and Elms, 2012 3.71 3.76
110.Secondary shopping/edgeof-centre shopping
Any type of shopping/retail activity in secondary locations out of High Street, e.g. Edge of City Centre locations
NRPF, 2004, Bennison et al, 2010 3.71 2.67
111. Spatial structure
Links to city centre/high street structures, nodal, bi-nodal, multi-nodal and polycentric regions and how they influence hierarchy of centres within metropolitan areas.
Bennison and Davies, 1980; Williams, 1999 3.71 1.24
112. Fragmentation
The degree of detachment in the High Street (political, retail, ownership, etc.) Williams, 1999 3.67 2.81
113.Commercial yields Level of return on commercial property investment
Hutchinson et al, 2008 3.67 2.88
114.Consumer culture
The current state that encourages consumption of goods/services Clarke et al., 2004 3.67 2.10
Total amount of floor area that is used for retail, leisure and other town centre uses Gibbs, 1987 3.67 3.05
116.Marketing Town centre effort in marketing
Kavaratzis and Ashworth, 2008 3.67 3.57
117.Store characteristics
Perceptions on characteristics like store location, environment, staff, etc.
Pantano et al., 2010 3.67 3.52
118.Street characteristics
Physical characteristics of the street/route that leads to or contains shopping/retail areas
Borgers and Timmermans, 1986 3.67 3.05
119. Technology
As an environmental factor that affects retailers, e.g. RFID
Coca-Stefaniak et al, 2005 3.67 2.19
120.Travel time
Links to length of trip to the shopping centre, high street, etc.
Rotem-Mindali, 2012 3.67 1.67
121. Type of centre (mall vs street)
Retail Parks, Shopping Centres, Malls, Out-of-town, etc. Hart et al, 2013 3.67 2.95
122. BID’s
Establishment of a Business Improvement District enabling local businesses, services and council to collaborate
De Magalhaes, 2012 3.62 3.71
123. Drive time
Total number of minutes travelling by car to a desired location Lowe, 2000 3.62 1.43
124. Number of landlords
Refers to the number of property owners that are renting out High Street premises Whysall, 2011 3.62 2.90
125. Place hierarchy
Hierarchy of places based on their centrality and size (national, metropolitan, major regional, minor regional, major district, minor district, etc.
Reynolds and Schiller, 1992; Guy, 1998 3.62 1.38
126. Real estate ownership
Links to type real estate ownership (single or multiple ownership, commercial company) Teller, 2008 3.62 2.90

127. Store development
The process of building, upgrading, remodelling or renovating retail stores Clarke, 2000 3.62 3.33
128. Engagement
Formal arrangement between High Street stakeholders (e.g. BIDs and council, community)
De Magalhaes, 2012 3.60 3.24
129. Retail fragmentation
Dividing up areas of high retail activity with areas of low activity Hart et al, 2013 3.60 3.43
130. Catchment commuting Amount of catchment that works in another centre
Shields and Deller, 1998 3.57 2.95
131. Environmental quality
Varied characteristics that refer to the natural fabric and built environment of the High Street/centre
Thomas and Bromley, 2003 3.57 2.69
132. Inertia (behavioural)
Tendency of consumers to repeat the same shopping trip in a centre as part of daily routines Clarke et al., 2004 3.57 3.00
133. Local economic integration
Coordination of economic activities and reduction of barriers with an aim to reduce costs to both local consumers and retailers
Findlay and Sparks, 2010 3.57 3.00
134. Supply of retail units
Number of units/properties that are available for retail use only
Jones and Orr, 1999 3.57 3.00
135. Functionality
The degree to which a centre fulfils a role – e.g. service centre, employment centre, residential centre, tourist centre.
Powe and Hart, 2008 3.52 3.33
136. Heritage
All parts of city centre/High Street ‘offer’ that are part of a place’s history (landmarks, old buildings, etc.)
Whitehead et al., 2006 3.52 3.12
137. Merchandise value
Links to the overall value of retail goods and the amount of pricing, discounts, samples, and other retail-related factors that customers can benefit from Teller, 2008 3.52 2.86
138. Multiple land ownership
Pieces of land/buildings/stores on the High Street/Town Centre that are owned by more than one owner
Robertson, 1997; Henderson, 2011 3.52 2.81
139. Open space
Amount of space that is not in private ownership, that citizens can freely use Cohen, 1996 3.52 3.38
140. Planning application
Permission in order to be allowed to build on land, or change the use of existing land or buildings
Dabinett et al., 1999 3.52 2.43
141. Public space
Amount of space that is not in private ownership, that citizens can freely use Cohen, 1996 3.52 3.55
142. Retail-led Regeneration
The impact that retail has had on the regeneration (in its widest sense – social, economic and physical) of town centres and local high streets
Findlay and Sparks, 2009 3.52 2.81
143. Urban Design
Process of designing and shaping cities, towns and villages.
De Nisco and Warnaby, 2014 3.52 3.05
144. Use of technology
Use of technology by retailers, to control costs, develop new markets, and new strategies
Kures and Ryan, 2012 3.52 2.43
145. Governance
Refers to the manner of governing the area affiliated with a centre (local, regional, metropolitan, community) Henderson, 2011 3.48 2.95
146. Retail/tenant Trust
Links to the relationships between retail tenants and shopping centre managers or town centre managers, see tenant/managers relationship
Roberts et al., 2010 3.45 3.52

147. Reputation
Links to the town’s/city’s ‘presence’ as a heuristic for visiting a retail centre/High Street Hart et al, 2013 3.43 3.19
148. Store/centre design
Process of designing shopping centres, stores, malls, etc.
Reimers and Clulow, 2004 3.43 3.31
149. Catchment psychographics
Classification of people in the catchment area according to their attitudes, aspirations, and other psychological criteria
Sullivan & Savitt, 1997 3.38 2.24
150. Orientation/flow (inc. signage)
A system of signs that provides information about the High Street’s offering and helps customers to orientate when on shopping trips, visits, etc.
Leo and Philippe, 2010 3.38 3.71
151. Retail unit sizes Size of a retail unit on the High Street
Yuo et al., 2003; Guy, 1998 3.38 3.21
152. Unfair competition
Competitive advantages of e.g. multiples vs independents and conventional shops that create disparities Gibbs, 1987 3.38 2.38
153. Ageing population People are living longer Bookman, 2008 3.33 2.10 154. Business ownership Refers to the type of ownership (sole trader, limited company, partnership, etc.) Henderson, 2011 3.33 2.76 155. Media Coverage A means of communicating about High Street – usually about events and festivities Warnaby and Yip, 2005 3.33 3.17 156. Tenant/manager relationships Links to the relationships between tenants and shopping centre managers (trust, warmness, friendliness) Prendergast et al., 1987 3.33 3.76
157.Centre empowerment
The degree to which centre managers provide support and treat tenants as an important element of centre
Roberts et al., 2010 3.32 3.76
158. Crowds
Total number of people gathered in the centre/High Street Gautschi, 1981 3.31 3.48
159. Branding
Collective centre identity communicated about centre
Roberts et al, 2010 3.29 3.33
160. Centre marketing
The centre’s promotional strategies and activities in order to attract visitors/shoppers Teller, 2008 3.29 3.76
161. Protection from weather
Store or High Street developments that can provide weather protection
Bennison and Davies, 1980 3.29 3.52
162. Tourism
All tourism attractions, number of tourists visiting, tourism expenditure, etc.
Hernandez and Jones, 2005 3.29 2.57
163. Regional rental level
The total rent per annum or rent per square foot/metre of a region Yuo et al, 2003 3.26 2.63
164. Car ownership Households with cars
Kervenoael et al, 2006 3.24 2.14
165. Social identity
A consumer’s self-concept derived from perceived membership in a relevant social group, in our case from local shopping and a sense of attachment to the community Miller, 2001 3.24 2.81
166. Street trading
The retail or wholesale trading of goods and services in streets and other related public areas such as alleyways, avenues and boulevards Jones et al., 2003 3.24 3.67
167. Low prices
Refers to the ability of some retailers (usually multiples, outlets, pound-shops) to offer permanently low prices Alport., 2005 3.20 2.71

168. Integration
Unification of spaces in the city centre for the benefit of the public
Karrholm et al., 2014 3.19 3.52
169. Merchandising
The activity of promoting the sale of goods at retail centres/shopping centres/High Street
De Nisco and Napolitano, 2006 3.19 3.81
170. Open/closed centre
Links to whether the centre is enclosed or open-air (exit one store before entering another or internal access to all shops)
Bennison and Davies, 1980 3.19 3.48
171. Opportunities to experiment
Links to opportunities for innovativeness and new ideas that can improve the High Street offer Neal, 2013 3.19 3.52
172. Organic development
Any store/high street/town centre development that stems from existing operations on the High Street/Town Centre
Bennison and Davies, 1980 3.19 3.48
173. Entry points
The number of routes that people choose to access the city centre
Borgers and Timmermans, 1986 3.10 2.71
174. Information (availability)
The type of information towns access and how this information is used
Larkham and Poper, 1989 3.10 3.57
175. Land ownership
Retail or other property, or land that is owned by an individual Henderson, 2011 3.10 2.95
176. Culture
The ideas, customs, and social behaviour of a particular people or society Robertson, 1997 3.05 2.19
177. Personal services
Commercial services such as catering and cleaning that supply the personal needs of customers
Kures and Ryan, 2012 3.05 3.81
178. Community benefits
Gestures from commercial developers to the community in exchange for planning permissions and agreements Howard, 2007 2.95 3.29
179. Community engagement
The process whereby public bodies reach out to communities to create empowerment opportunities
Depriest-Hricko and Prytherch, 2013 2.95 3.52
180. Community power
Refers to how much power the community has in decision-making for High Street change
Scottish Government, 2007 2.95 3.24
181. CPOs
Compulsory Purchase Order: Obtaining Land for retail and other purposes without owner’s consent
Imrie and Thomas, 1997 2.95 2.90
182. Social cohesion
Tendency for a group to be in unity towards a common goal Williams, 1999 2.95 2.86
183. Special offers
Degree of availability of special offers/discounts on the High Street, shopping centre, retail park, etc. Marjanen, 2000 2.95 3.62
184. Centre support for the local community and environment
Retailers’ CSR actions that benefit the centre’s environment and the community overall
Oppewal et al., 2006 2.95 3.80
185. Information (seeking)
Recollection of product/service-related information, or general information for a centre, either internal or external Brown, 1987 2.90 3.24
186. Social enterprise
Organisations (or even BIDs) that apply commercial strategies to maximize improvements in human and environmental well-being
De Magalhaes, 2012 2.90 3.10

187. Communication practices (development)
Refers to the number of channels and information that is provided to an area’s stakeholders for future land/building developments Henderson, 2011 2.86 2.95
188. Credit
Ability to purchase goods/services by credit cards, etc.
Sullivan & Savitt, 1997 2.86 2.52
189. Local resistance
Degree of support to a local market when “threatened” by large retailers
Hallsworth and Worthington, 2000 2.81 3.52
190. Methods of classification
Classification of High Streets/Town Centres/Shopping Centres by type of goods, shopping trip purpose, size, ownership Guy, 1998 2.81 1.81
191. Political climate
Current mood and opinions of political issues that affect decision-making Brown, 1987 2.81 2.00
192. Property age
Age of commercial/retail properties on the High Street
Wolverton and Carr, 2002 2.81 3.14
193. Performance Indicators (KPIs)
Type of performance measurements that are related to the High Street
Hogg, Medway, Warnaby, 2004 2.76 3.24
194. Ethnic retailers
The act of retailing by members of minority ethnic groups/immigrants on the High Street
Coca-Stefaniak et al., 2010 2.71 3.48
195. Upper floor usage
What upper-floor developments are needed and how they can assist in the viability of the High Street
Scottish Government, 2007 2.71 3.62
196. Baby-Change Facilities/Toilets
Hygiene factors of a centre including public toilets, baby rooms, diaper changing rooms
Reimers and Clulow, 2000 2.55 3.95 197. Deliveries The process of delivering goods to shops/centres Pickering, 1981 2.52 3.36
198. Cycling
Refers to all infrastructure and routes available for cyclists Biddulph, 2011 2.43 3.14
199. Land contamination
Pollution caused by past uses of a site, such as former factories, mines, steelworks, refineries and landfills.
Dabinett et al, 1999 2.43 2.62
200. Childminding centre
A daycare centre for children which is part of the shopping area
Johnston and Rimmer, 1967 2.29 3.95
201. Healthcare
Organized provision of medical care to individuals or a community May et al., 2012 2.2381 2.5238